ラッセル『結婚論』第二十一章 結論 n.2

 第二十一章 結論 n.2

 かなり近代になってから,性道徳のキリスト教的および前キリスト教的な要素(parts 部分/パーツ)が修正されつつある兆し(sign 兆候)が現われてきている。キリスト教的な要素は,以前のような支配力(the hold 掌握する力)を持っていない。その理由は,宗教的正統の衰退及びいまだ信仰を失っていない人びとの間でさえ起こっている信仰の強さの減少にある。今世紀に生まれた男女は,無意識的には古い態度を保持している傾向があるにせよ,意識的には,大部分の人々は私通(不義密通)それ自体を罪であるとは信じていない。

(注:岩波文庫の安藤訳ではうっかりミスで「夫のみによって子どもを生むことが可能になった。」と訳されている。これはもちろん,「夫の希望や欲求だけで子どもを生むことを★避けることを可能にした」の意味。avoid が 2つ目の to にもかかることを見落としたと思われる。)

 夫の嫉妬が,新しい慣習によって(by a new convention),新しい状況に適応するようになり,妻が,(夫以外の)誰か他の男を自分の子供の父親として選びたいと言い出した時にのみ生じるということも,決してありえないことではない。東洋では,男たちは,つねに,ヨ一口ッパの夫なら大部分の者が憤慨するような,官官(かんがん)たちの気ままな自由(liberties 行動の自由)を大目に見てきた(注:もちろん,これは中国のことで、日本はあたはまらないであろう)。そういう行為を大目に見ていたのは,宦官の場合,父性に関する疑いが生じないからであった。同じような寛大さは,容易に,避妊具の使用に伴う自由にまで広げることができるだろう。

Chapter 21: Conclusion, n.2

In quite modern times there have been signs that both the Christian and the pre-Christian parts of sexual morality are undergoing modification. The Christian part has not the hold that it formerly had, because of the decay of religious orthodoxy and the diminishing intensity of belief even among those who still believe. Men and women born during the present century, although their unconscious is apt to retain the old attitudes, do not, for the most part, consciously believe that fornication as such is sin. As for the pre-Christian elements in sexual ethics, these have been modified by one factor, and are in process of being modified by yet another. The first of these factors is contraceptives, which are making it increasingly possible to prevent sexual intercourse from leading to pregnancy, and are therefore enabling women, if unmarried, to avoid children altogether, and if married, to have children only by their husbands, without in either case finding it necessary to be chaste. This process is not yet complete, because contraceptives are not yet wholly reliable, but one may, I think, assume that before very long they will become so. In that case, assurance of paternity will become possible without the insistence that women shall have no sexual intercourse outside marriage. It may be said that women could deceive their husbands on the point, but after all it has been possible from the earliest times for women to deceive their husbands, and the motive for deception is much less strong when the question is merely who shall be the father than when it is whether there shall be intercourse with a person who may be passionately loved. One may therefore assume that deceit as to paternity, though it may occasionally occur, will be less frequent than deceit as to adultery has been in the past. It is also by no means impossible that the jealousy of husbands should, by a new convention, adapt itself to the new situation, and arise only when wives propose to choose some other man as the father of their children. In the East, men have always tolerated liberties on the part of eunuchs which most European husbands would resent. They have tolerated them because they introduce no doubt as to paternity. The same kind of toleration might easily be extended to liberties accompanied by the use of contraceptives.
 出典: Marriage and Morals, 1929.