バートランド・ラッセル名言・格言集(過去ログ)_ Bertrand Russell Quotes (Archives)

[格言・警句集 n.158:老政治家の老害]

 これらの老政治家(注:Trump を含む)は皆,物事を経験する前に彼らが既に思いこんでいたことを信ずる(再確認する)ことを経験から学んできたのである。というのは,大部分の人は,自分の偏見を再確認するだけで経験からは何も学ばないからである。経験から何ものかを学ぶためには科学者気質の本質とも言える一種の偏見のない広い心が必要である。ただし,科学者の多くも,この偏見のない広い心がいくらか欠けているが。

All these men have learnt from experience to believe what they already believed before they had experience, for most people learn nothing from experience, except confirmation of their prejudices. To learn anything genuinely from experience requires a kind of open-mindedness which is the essence of the scientific temper, though many men of science are somewhat lacking in it.
(出典: ラッセル『アメリカン・エッセイ集』の中の「経験の教え」.

[格言・警句集 n.157:祖国のために敵国人を殺す]


Great States have, at present the privilege of killing members of other States whenever they feel so disposed, though this liberty is disguised as the heroic privilege of dying in defence of what is right and just. Patriots always talk of dying for their country and never of killing for their country. (出典: Has Man a Future ? G. Allen & Unwin, 1962, p.84.

[格言・警句集 n.156:競争の哲学に毒された現代人]

It is not only work that is poisoned by the philosophy of competition; leisure is poisoned just as much. The kind of leisure which is quiet and restoring to the nerves comes to be felt boring. There is bound to be a continual acceleration of which the natural termination would be drugs and collapse. The cure for this lies in admitting the part of sane and quiet enjoyment in a balanced ideal of life.
(出典: Bertrand Russell: The Conquest of Happiness, 1930, chap.3: Competition.

[格言・警句集 n.155:権力者による情報操作と偏見の押し付け]


What is new in our time is the increased power of the authorities to enforce their prejudices.
(出典: Bertrand Russell: Symptoms of George Orwell'a 1984. Also quoted on Who Said That? BBC TV, Aug. 8, 1958

[格言・警句集 n.154:政治を支配する動機]


There are three reasons for which you may co-operate with a man: because you love him, because you fear him, or because you hope to share the swag. These three motives are of differing importance in different regions of human co-operation: the first governs procreation, and the third governs politics.
(出典: https://russell-j.com/COWARD.HTM.

[格言・警句集 n.153:権力(政権)にしがみつく政治家]


Men like Einstein proclaim obvious truths about war but are not listened to. So long as Einstein is unintelligible, he is thought wise, but as soon as he says anything that people can understand, it is thought that his wisdom has departed from him. In this folly, governments take a leading part. It seems that politicians would rather lead their countries to destruction than not be in the government. ...
(出典: https://russell-j.com/DESIRE-W.HTM.

[格言・警句集 n.152:権力に従順な人間]


The submissive lose initiative, both in thought and action; moreover, the anger generated by the feeling of being thwarted tends to find an outlet in bullying those who are weaker. That is why tyrannical institutions are self-perpetuating.
(出典: In Praise of Idleness, and Other Essays, 1935, chap. 12: Education.

[格言・警句集 n.151:'拱手傍観'の口実?]


The scepticism of the intelligent is the cause of their impotence, and is itself the effect of their laziness : if there is nothing worth doing, that gives an excuse for sitting still. But when disaster is impending, no excuse for sitting still can be valid. The intelligent will have to shed their scepticism, or share responsibility for the evils which all deplore.
(出典: On modern uncertainty, June 20, 1932. In: Mortals and Others, v.1, 1975.

[格言・警句集 n.150:政界では権力に従う臆病者だけが生き残る?]


During the French Revolution, when the Reign of Terror came to an end, it was found that no one was left alive among the politicians except prudent cowards who had changed their opinions quickly enough to keep their heads on their shoulders.
(出典: The advantages of cowardice, Nov. 2, 1931. In: Mortals and Others, v.1, 1975.

格言・警句集 n.149:権力者や上品な人々の奢り及び無慈悲さ]


Holders of power, always and everywhere, are indifferent to the good or evil of those who have no power, except in so far as they are restrained by fear. This may sound too harsh a saying. It may be said that decent people will not inflict torture on others beyond a point. This may be said, but history shows that it is not true. The decent people in question succeed in not knowing, or pretending not to know, what torments are inflicted to make them happy.
(出典:What is Democracy? 1953: Evils of Power

[格言・警句集 n.148:◯◯さん,貴方はファシスト(独裁者)だ!]

私は続けて言った。「ファシズム(全体主義/国家=政府独裁主義)の本質は,立法府を行政府に従属させることにあるということも認めますね?」 彼らは,前よりもややためらい勝ちではあったが,「はい」と応えた。私は続けて言った。「さて,あなたがたは行政府(の人間)であり,私は立法府(の人間)です。もしあなたがたが,私の立法機能を,必要以上に一日でも長く阻害するようであれば,あなたがたはファシストです!」

'And', I continued, 'you will admit that the essence of Fascism consists in the subordination of the legislature to the executive'. 'Yes', they said, though with slightly more hesitation. 'Now,' I continued, 'you are the executive and I am the legislature and if you keep me away from my legislative functions one day longer than is necessary, you are Fascists.'
(出典:The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell, v.2, 1968, chap. 6:America

[格言・警句集 n.147:残酷さへの嫌悪感を植えつけない限り残酷なことを慎まない人間性]


... Unless we can give them an aversion from cruelty they will not abstain from it; and they cannot have an aversion from it if they do not know that it exists.
(出典:On Education, especially in early childhood, 1926, part 2, chap.11: Affection and Sympathy

[格言・警句集 n.146:奢った政治家と追従者]


Fabre describes a collection of insects which had the habit of following their leader. He placed them on a circular disc which their leader did not know to be circular. They marched round and round until they dropped dead of fatigue. Modern statesmen and their admirers are guilty of equal and very similar folly.

(出典:Fact and Fiction, 1961, part VI:Peace and War

[格言・警句集 n.145:拝金主義]


The ideal of financial success is set before the young by most of the influences that form their minds. ... Even artists come to be judged by the amount of money they make. Merit not measured in money comes to be despised. Every kind of sensitiveness, being a handicap in the struggle, is regarded as a stigma of failure.
(出典:Fope and Fear, Oct. 7th, 1932. In: Mortals and Others; Bertrand Russell's American Essays, 1931-1935, v.1」

[格言・警句集 n.144:仕事の結果のみを重視すると・・・]


Where there is delight in a process, there will be style, and the activity of production will itself have aethetic quality. But when men assimilate themselves to machines and value only the consequences of their work, not the work itself, style disappears, to be replaced by something which to the mechanised man appears more natural, though in fact it is only more brutal.

(出典:In praise of artificiality, Sept. 9th, 1931. In: Mortals and Others; Bertrand Russell's American Essays, 1931-1935, v.1: >」

[格言・警句集 n.143:無意識かつ努力しないで人を好きになれること]


A sense of duty is useful in work, but offensive in personal relations. People wish to be liked, not to be endured with patient resignation. To like many people spontaneously and without effort is perhaps the greatest of all sources of personal happiness.
(出典:Bertrand Russell: The Conquest of Happiness, 1930, chap. 10: Is Happiness still possible?

[格言・警句集 n.142:民主主義選挙のパラドクス]


The men who enjoy the good opinion of the community, with few exceptions, do not seek to win its votes and would be unsuccessful if they did, while the men who win votes are apt to be professionals of a not wholly admirable kind. (I am not thinking of those who obtain the highest offices.) This is a paradox which was not foreseen by the pioneers of democracy. .

[格言・警句集 n.141:所有欲のカムフラージュ]



Moreover it is very often a camouflage for possessiveness. It is hoped that by rousing their fears a more complete empire over them can be obtained. This, of course, is one of the reasons why men have liked timid women, since by protecting them they came to own them.
[格言・警句集 n.140:人に従うことを覚えた人間は・・・]


Some fool, long ago - probably a Roman - said that to know how to command, a man must first learn how to obey. This is the opposite of the truth. The man who has learnt to obey will either have lost all personal initiative or will have become so filled with rage against the authorities that his initiative will have become destructive and cruel.

[格言・警句集 n.139:絶えず自我を膨張させる必要のある人たちの為す悪事]


Half the useful work in the world consists of combating the harmful work. A little time spent in learning to appreciate facts is not time wasted, and the work that will be done afterwards is far less likely to be harmful than the work done by those who need a continual inflation of their ego as a stimulant to their energy.

[格言・警句集 n.138:戦争をもたらす衝動や情熱を阻止するためには・・・]

Reason, as it is preached by traditional moralists, is too of negative, too little living, to make a good life. It is not by reason alone that wars can be prevented, but by a positive life of impulses and passions antagonistic to those that lead to war. It is the life of impulse that needs to be changed, not only the life of conscious thought.

[格言・警句集 n.137:雄弁な政治家の手口]


Most political leaders acquire their position by causing large numbers of people to believe that these leaders are actuated by altruistic desires...

[格言・警句集 n.136:知恵を伴わない科学技術の発展]

... Knowledge is power, but it is power for evil just as much as for good. It follows that, unless men increase in wisdom as much as in knowledge, increase of knowledge will be increase of sorrow.

[格言・警句集 n.135:国際機関による歴史教科書の編纂]

... If good relations between States were desired, one of the first steps ought to, be to submit all teaching of history to an international commission, which should produce neutral textbooks free from the patriotic bias which is now demanded everywhere.

[格言・警句集 n.134:経験に学ばない老政治家?]


All these men have learnt from experience to believe what they already believed before they had experience, for most people learn nothing from experience, except confirmation of their prejudices. To learn anything genuinely from experience requires a kind of open-mindedness which is the essence of the scientific temper, though many men of science are somewhat lacking in it.

[格言・警句集 n.133:権力者が増長する一要因]


It is disguised, among the more timid, as an impulse of submission to leadership, which increases the scope of the power-impulses of bold men. .

(出典:Bertrand Russell: Power, a new social analysis, 1938,chap. 1) [邦訳書:『権力-その歴史と心理』(みすず書房)]」)

[格言・警句集 n.132:由らしむべし知らしむべからず]

... The danger is that frightened men will forget the general arguments in favour of liberty and will carry suppression much farther than is necessary in the interests of security. I think that in Britain we have to a great extent avoided this danger. I do not think that it has been avoided in the United States.


All unhappiness depends upon some kind of disintegration or lack of integration; there is disintegration within the self through lack of coordination between the conscious and the unconscious mind; there is lack of integration between the self and society where the two are not knit together by the force of objective interests and affections. .


We have chosen to hedge round the profession of teaching with such restrictions that, in the main, those who choose this profession are men and women who are afraid of reality, and we have done this because, while many of us recognise that contact with reality has been good for us, few of us have the courage to believe that it is good for our children.


In the modern world there is hardly any leisure, not because men work harder than they did, but because their pleasures have become as strenuous as their work. The result is that, while cleverness has increased, wisdom has decreased because no one has time for the slow thoughts out of which wisdom, drop by drop, is distilled.


Our militarists have successfully opposed the granting of votes to soldiers; yet in all the countries an attempt is made to persuade the civilian population that war-weariness is confined to the enemy soldiers. The daily toll of young lives destroyed becomes a horror almost too terrible to be borne; yet everywhere, advocacy of peace is rebuked as treachery to the soldiers, though the soldiers above all men desire peace..


 正義と不正は,一緒に取り上げなければならない。一方を強調し他方を強調しないでいることはできない。さて,実際のところ「不正」とは何であろうか? それは,実際においては,群集によって嫌われている種類の行為である。それを不正と呼び,この概念を中心に入念な倫理体系を築くことによって,その嫌悪の対象に罰を加えることに対し,群集は自己の正当化を行なうのである。

Righteousness and unrighteousness must be taken together; it is impossible to stress the one without stressing the other also: Now, what is "unrighteousness" in practice? It is in practice behaviour of a kind disliked by the herd. By calling it unrighteousness, and by arranging an elabofate system of ethics around this conception, the herd iustifies itself in wreaking punishment upon the objects of its own dislike,...
(出典: Has religion made useful contribution to civilization, 1930)


 さて,ここに私たち(ラッセル=アインシュタイン宣言署名者)が皆さんに提出する,厳しく,恐ろしく,そして避けることのできない問題がある 即ち,私たちは人類に絶滅をもたらすか,それとも人類が戦争を放棄するか? 戦争を廃絶することはあまりにも困難であるという理由で,人々はこの二者択一という問題を面と向かってとり上げようとしないであろう。

Here, then, is the problem which we present to you, stark and dreadful and inescapable: Shall we put an end to the human race; or shall mankind renounce war? People will not face this alternative because it is so difficult to abolish war.
(出典: 「ラッセル=アインシュタイン宣言」)

[格言・警句集 n.125:権力の公正な分配]


Democracy is desirable, not because the ordinary voter has any political wisdom, but because any section of mankind which has a monopoly of power is sure to invent theories designed to prove that the rest of mankind had better do without the good things of life. This is one of the least amiable traits of human nature, but history shows that there is no adequate protection against it except the just distribution of political power throughout all classes and both sexes.
(出典: ラッセル「身代わりの禁欲主義について」)

[格言・警句集 n.124:どこでもゴマすりが・・]

,but wherever organisation exists cowardice will be found more advantageous than courage. Of the men at the head of businesses, schools, lunatic asylums, and the like, nine out of ten will prefer the supple lickspittle to the outspoken man of independent judgement. In politics it is necessary to profess the party programme and flatter the leaders;
(出典: ラッセル「臆病は有利」)

[格言・警句集 n.123:偽装された正義感]

but he holds that the punishment of undesirable kinds is only to be commended when it is deterrent or reformatory, not when it is inflicted because it is thought a good thing on its own account that the wicked should suffer. It was this belief in vindictive punishment that made men accept Hell. This is part of the harm done by the notion of 'sin'.
(出典: ラッセル「不可知論者とは何か」)

[格言・警句集 n.122:自由競争崇拝者達へ!]

People destitute of the arts of success have their rights, and it is difficult to say how they are to secure them when all those who possess these arts achieve success. There is no solution except to abandon the belief that competition is a means of securing justice.
(出典: ラッセル『アメリカン・エッセイ』の中の「成功と失敗(自由競争社会)

[格言・警句集 n.121:権力者による偏見の醸成]


What is new in our time is the increased power of the authorities to enforce their prejudices.
(出典: Quoted on Who Said That? BBC TV, Aug. 8, 1958 より)

[格言・警句集 n.120:要約された'人類の歴史']

 ある日,学校(注:ラッセルが一時期経営していた Beacon Hill School)で,中くらいの背格好の少年が自分より小柄な少年をいじめているのを見つけた。たしなめたところ彼は次のように答えた。「自分より大きな奴が自分をなぐる。そこで私は自分より小さい奴をなぐる。公平だよ。」 この言葉によって,この少年は,「人類の歴史」を要約してみせた。

I found one day in school a boy of medium size ill-treating a smaller boy. I expostulated but he replied: "The bigs hit me, so I hit the babies; that's fair." In these words he epitomized the history of the human race.
(出典:Education and the Social Order, 1932, p.32 (= G. Allen & Unwin ed.)より)

[格言・警句集 n.119:「正常」な人間とは・・・]


Every isolated passion is, in isolation, insane; sanity may be defined as a synthesis of insanities. Every dominant passion generates a dominant fear, the fear of its non-fulfilment. ... The man who wishes to preserve sanity in a dangerous world should summon in his own mind a Parliament of fears, in which each in turn is voted absurd by all the others.
(出典:Nightmares of Eminent Persons and Other Stories, 1954 の序文」 より)

[格言・警句集 n.118:人の振り見て・・・]


The first time one learns that one's best friends are liable to be wittily satirical at one's expense, the experience is very painful, and one feels furious in spite of the consciousness of often having done the same thing oneself.
(出典:ラッセル『アメリカン・エッセイ』の中の「嫉妬について」 より)

[格言・警句集 n.117:身代わりの禁欲主義]

「しかし,かなりの余暇時間がなければ,人間は(人生における)最良のものの多くから切り離される。国民(民衆)の大部分がこの最良のものを奪われて苦しまなければならない理由はもはやまったくない。愚かな禁欲主義のみが -それは通常'身代わり'のものであるが- 今日ではもはや必要のない'過度の労働'(の必要性)を強調し続けるのである。(注 vicarious asceticism の意味は,ラッセル「身代わりの禁欲主義について」を参照。)

But without a considerable amount of leisure a man is cut off from many of the best things. There is no longer any reason why the bulk of the population should suffer this deprivation; only a foolish asceticism, usually vicarious, makes us continue to insist on work in excessive quantities now that the need no longer exists.
(出典:In Praise of Idleness, 1932 より)

[格言・警句集 n.116:愛国心(3)-教育]


Education authorities, as opposed to teachers, have not this merit, and do in fact sacrifice the children to what they consider the good of the State by teaching them 'patriotism', i. e., a willingness to kill and be killed for trivial reasons. Authority would be comparatively harmless if it were always in the hands of people who wish well to those whom they control, but there is no known method of securing this result.
(出典:Sceptical Essays, 1928, chap. 13:Freedom in Socieety より)

[格言・警句集 n.115:愛国心(2)-教育における]

Patriotism of the nationalistic type, so far from being taught in schools, ought to be mentioned as a form of mass-hysteria to which men are unfortunately liable, and against whith ...
(出典:Education and the Social Order, 1932, chap. 10:教育における愛国心より)


[格言・警句集 n.114:歴史教育(1)]


Children should learn that every country has committed crimes and that most crimes were blunders. (出典:What is Democracy, 1951, the teaching of hisory より)

[格言・警句集 n.113:愛国心(1)]


Great States have, at present the privilege of killing members of other States whenever they feel so disposed, though this liberty is disguised as the heroic privilige of dying in defence of what is right and just. Patriots always talk of dying for their country and never of killing for their country.
(出典:Has Man a Future?, G. Allen & Unwin, 1962, p.84より)

[格言・警句集 n.112:愚かな人]


A stupid man’s report of what a clever man says is never accurate, because he unconsciously translates what he hears into something that he can understand..
(出典:A History of Western Philosophy, 1945, 第11章 Socrates の一節より)

[格言・警句集 n.111:たとえ信心深くても・]

But a man who acquires a fortune by cruelty and exploitation should be regarded as at present we regard what is called an 'immoral' man; and he should be so regarded even if he goes to church regularly and gives a portion of his ill-gotten gains to public objects.
(出典:The Harm That Good Men Do(善人がお及ぼす悪),1926より)

[格言・警句集 n.110:個人の死と生命の流れ]

To be happy in this world, especially when youth is past, it is necessary to feel oneself not merely an isolated individual whose day will soon be over, but part of the stream of life flowing on from the first germ to the remote and unknown future.

[格言・警句集 n.109:哲学の価値]
(The man who has no tincture of philosophy goes through life imprisoned in the prejudices derived from common sense, from the habitual beliefs of his age or his nation, and from convictions which have grown up in his mind without the co-operatin or consent of his deliberate reason. To such a man the world tends to become definite, finite, obvious; common objects rouse no questions.)
(出典:'the value of philosophy' in The Problems of Philosophy, 1912.)

[格言・警句集 n.108:権力衝動(社会科学の根本概念)]

(... In the course of this book, I shall be concerned to prove that the fundamental concept in social science is Power, in the same sense in which Energy is the fundamental concept in physics.)
(出典:'The Impusle to Power' in Power, 1938.)

[格言・警句集 n.107:天才になるための秘訣]

(One of the most important elements of success in becoming a man of genius is to learn the art of denunciation. You must always denounce in such a way that your reader thinks that it is the other fellow who is being denounced and not himself; in that case he will be impressed by your noble scorn, whereas if he thinks that it is himself that you are denouncing, he will consider that you are guilty of ill-bred peevishness.)
(出典:'How to become a man of genius' in Mortal and Others: Bertrand Russell's American Essays, 1931-1935, v.1.) / Full text

[格言・警句集 n.106:'困難な仕事'の見返り]

(The professions in which a man is allowed to behave in a natural manner are, of course, on the whole less lucrative than those in which a high standard of humbug is required. The corporation lawyer, the corrupt politician, and the popular psychiatrist are expected to utter moral sentiments with profound earnestness and great frequency, but in return for this hard work, they are allowed a suitable remuneration.)
(出典:'On being edifying' in Mortal and Others: Bertrand Russell's American Essays, 1931-1935, v.1.) / Full text


(It is not only work that is poisoned by the philosophy of competition; leisure is poisoned just as much. The kind of leisure which is quiet and restoring to the nerves comes to be felt boring. There is bound to be a continual acceleration ...)
(出典:'Competition' in The Conquest of Happiness, 1929.) / Full text


(In the days when science was persecuted by the Church, men of science were liberal and progressive; nowadays, when they ae covered with honours and universally respected, they tend to be supports of the satus quo.)
(出典:'Success and Failure' in Mortals and Others: Bertrand Russell's American Essays, 1931-1935.)
Full text

(出典:'The Triumph of Stupidity'(May 10, 1933) in Mortals and Others: Bertrand Russell's American Essays, 1931-1935, v.2, p.28.)
(The fundamental cause of the trouble is that in the modern world the stupid are cocksure while the intelligent are full of doubt.)

出典:Right and Might, 193?.)
(But you cannot say, with any semblance of logic, that you are against war but in favour of the present system, according to which, in a dispute, every government is the ultimate judge in its own case. If war is ever abolished, it will have to be by the establishment of an international government possessed of irresistible armed forces.)

出典:On snobbery, Dec. 1, 1931.)
(All distinctions not based upon intrinsic merit have this bad effect upon character and on this ground, if on no other, deserve to be abolished.)

出典:On economic security, June 1, 1932.)
(Security depending upon exceptional privilege is unjust, and the man who has to find excuses for an injustice by which he profits is bound to acquire a distorted moral sense.)

(出典:On tact, Feb. 1, 1933.)
(Men accustomed to difficult negotiations learn a kind of tenderness towards the vanity of others and indeed towards all their prejudices, which is infinitely shocking to those who make a cult of sincerity. )

「我々はいつも変化は必要だと口癖のように言うけれども,そのことを頭のなかでは(理屈の上では)分かっていても,現実における変化には耐えられない。それゆえ,年取った急進派は,彼が無力であるかぎり幸せになれるという悲しい身の上にある。」 (出典:The menace of old age, Aug. 27, 1931))
(We may remain intellectually convinced of the necessity of change since this is one of our fixed verbal habits, but we cannot bear actual change. The aged radical is therefore in the sad situation that he can only be happy so long as he is ineffective.)

「我々は他人の行動について,一般的に言って,その人を愛したり憎んだりしたりしていない限り,余り興味を持たない。他人に興味を持たなければ,あえて他人に関する知識を求めようとはしない。だが愛したり憎んだりする限り,我々が他人について得る情報は,間違えやすくなる傾向がある。このことは特に,他国に対する知識についても言える。」(出典:As others see us, Mar. 23, 1932)
(We do not, as a rule take a very great interest in the doings of other people unless we either love or hate them. If we do not take an interest in them, we do not take the trouble to get information about them; while if we either love or hate them, the information which we shall obtain is likely to be misinformation. This applies in particular to one nation's knowledge of another nation.)

「もし悪魔と堕天使が党公認の候補に指名され,大天使ガブリエルが無所属で立候補するならば,ガブリエルに当選の見込みはない。・・・。ともかく民主主義国家において,自分たちが選んだ政治家を批判することは,我々自身を批判することであるということを肝に銘じよう。我々は我々にふさわしい政治家を選ぶのである。」(出典:On Politician, Dec. 16, 1931))

(Let us remember that in a democracy criticism of our politicians is criticism of ourselves - we have the politicians we deserve.)

「今日の(現代的な)学校で教えられることがらは,それ自体知る価値があるものが多いが,通例,生徒が結局は(よく)理解しない方法で教えられる。その結果,大人たちは正確さを欠いた心的習性を身につけ,悪意のある動機による事実の歪曲に気付かなくなる。」 (出典:The decay of intellectual standards, Oct. 19, 1932)

(What is taught in up-to-date schools is often worth knowing on its own account but is usually taught in such a way that the pupils do not know it at the end. The consequence is that adults have slipshod habits of mind and cease to notice distortions of fact which have a sinister motive.)

「収入が変動しなければ,人間は金銭についてあまり考えないだろうし,社会的地位が変らなければ家柄を鼻にかける俗物などにならないだろうし,自国の偉大さが(他国から見ても)議論の余地がなければ,熱狂的な愛国者にならないであろう。」 (出典:Hope and Fear, Oct. 7, 1931)

(If a man's income is fixed, he will not think much about money; if his social position is inalterable, he will not be a snob; if he believes his country's greatness to be unassailable, he will not be a vehement nationalist.)

「当面ほとんど実行されそうもないある種の改革を唱えることで現在生計を立てている知的かつ高潔な無数の男女が,万一魔法使いの一撃で彼らの唱道する種々の施策が達成された際には,一体どういう境遇になるかを考えると身震いする。」(出典:On Societies, June 8, 1932)

(I shudder to think what would become of immense numbers of intelligent and high-minded men and women who at present earn their livelihood by advocating some reform which is very unlikely to be carried, if, by some magician's stroke, all their various measures were to be achieved.)

「経済の機構を再び正常にもどすには,個々の経済活動が常に利潤を生まなければならないという要請はもはや必須ではないことは明らかである,と私は考える。」(出典:Who gets our savings?, Dec, 1931
(I think it is clear that to start the economic machine again working normally it will be necessary no longer to demand that each operation should at each moment be profitable.)

「世界が今渦中にある経済恐慌は,人間の力を越えた自然発生的な原因を持つものではない。それはひとえに人間の愚かさと組織化の欠如の所産である。(その結果)ある国は富を余りにも持ちすぎ,他の国はあまりにも富を持たなさすぎる。」(出典:Who gets our savings?, Dec, 1931
(Depressions such as the one through which the world is now passing do not have natural causes lying beyond human control. They are the result solely of human stupidity and lack of organisation. One country has too much gold, another has too little..)

「科学者は,一般の人たちと同様に持っている偏見に関係ない専門的な問題を扱っている場合は,他の誰よりもずっと正しい判断を下す傾向にある。だが,残念ながら,個人的に強い感情を抱いている問題に取り組む場合に,公平無私な立場を維持できる科学者がほとんどいない。」(出典:Are men of science scientific? ,Feb.24, 1932
(When the man of science is dealing with technical matters that do not touch upon the prejudices which he shares with the average man, he is more likely to be right than anyone else. But unfortunately very few men of science are able to retain their impartiality when they come to matters about which they feel strongly.)

(注:中野好之(訳)『人生についての断章』(みすず書房)では,「・・・もしも,沈思黙考が長ければ,それだけ無益な空騒ぎがなくなるだろう」と訳されているが,原文は「the bustle would be less futile」であることから,「騒ぎはなくならないがその無益さがより減じる」ということであろう。)
出典:The decay of meditation, Nov. 7, 1931.
(これは,ラッセルが Hearst 系の雑誌に掲載したエッセイに出てくる言葉です。

(Two minutes a year, on Armistice Day, are given to silence, and all the other minutes of the year to largely futile bustle. The proportion is wrong; if the silence were longer, the bustle would be less futile.)

「我々にとって最悪なのは,あらゆる人間を分類して(仕分けして)明瞭なレッテル(ラベル)を貼ること(行為)である。この不幸な習性の持主は,自分が相手に適切だと思うタグ(札)を貼りつける時に,その相手について(タグをはりつけるに足る)完全な知識をもっている考える。」(出典:On labelling people, Aug. 10, 1932.
(これは,ラッセルが Hearst 系の雑誌に掲載したエッセイに出てくる言葉です。

(One of the worst is that of classifying everybody with some obvious label. People who have this unfortunate habit think that they have complete knowledge of a man or woman when they have pinned on the tag that they consider appropriate.)

「'協力 '(の美徳)以上の道徳観を持ち介わせない人は,群衆に抵抗することを可能とするような気迫を持たないために,群集と一緒になって逃げるだろう。戦争に乗り出す国民の心理(状態)は,すべての点でこれと同じである。」(出典:Of cooperation, May 18, 1932.
(これは,ラッセルが Hearst 系の雑誌に掲載したエッセイに出てくる言葉です。

(The person who has learnt no higher morality than what is called 'co-operation' will join in the stampede since he will possess no inner force that would enable him to stand up against the herd. The psychology of a nation embarking on a war is at all points identical.)

「自由競争の勝者である現代世界の支配者たちは,冷酷無慈悲さをはじめ,競争での成功を実現する様々な行為や資質の価値を過大評価する。」(出典:On economic security, June 1, 1932.
(これは,1929年の世界大恐慌から世界がまだ立ち直っていない1932年に,ラッセルが Hearst 系の雑誌に掲載したエッセイに出てくる言葉です。

On the other hand, the powerful men of the present day who are the victors in a free fight overestimate the value of ruthlessness and of the various acts by which success in competition is achieved.)

* 佐々木高政著『(新訂)英文解釈考』p.77の注:一行目の 'never' は,'not at all, in no way' ではなく,'in no instance' の意味

A stupid man's report of what a clever man says is never accurate, because he unconsciously translates what he hears into something that he can understand.


(世の中は分からないことばかりであり,不安に満ちている。そのような環境では安住できないので,人は「軽信」に陥り易い。人によって「軽信の対象」は種々様々である。「自由人」とは金持ちで気ままな生活のできる人を言うのではなく,そのような軽信に陥らない,「精神の自由」を持った人間を指すべきだろう。しかし,ラッセルが言うように,「自由な精神生活は,何らかの信条(教義)に包まれた生活のように,暖かく,快適で,愛想のよいものではない。」 あなたはどちらを選ぶのか?!・・・。)

All sorts of intellectual systems - Christianity, Socialism, Patriotism, etc - are ready, like orphan asylums, to give safety in return for servitude.



Although curiosity lessens in intensity and in extent after childnood, it may for a long time improve in quality.



The desire to instil what are regarded as correct beliefs has made educationists too often indifferent to the training of intelligence.



No doubt the word 'intelligence' properly signifies rather an aptitude for acquiring knowledge than knowledge already acquired.



Science has greatly increased our power of affecting the lives of distant people, without increasing our sympathy for them.



Courageous behaviour is easier for a man who fails to apprehend dangers, but such courage may often be foolish.



Having renounced pleasure for himself, the ascetic saint renounces it for others also, which is easier.



The cruelty invariably displayed in suppressing Negro insurrections, communist rebellions and ouher threats to aristocracy, is an offshoot of cowardice, and deserves the same contempt as it bestowed upon the more obvious forms of that vice.



Fear should be overcome not only in action, but in feeling.



Human beings are prone to become absorbed in themselves, unable to be interested in what they see and hear or in anything outside their own skins.



Vitality makes it easy to take an interest in whatever occurs, and thus promotes objectivity.



Children and young people feel instinctively the difference between those who genuinely wish them well and those who regard them merely as a raw material for some scheme.



Good habits can make a great part of virtue almost automatic.



Happiness in childhood is absolutely necessary to the production of the best type of human being.



I shudder when I think of the wars, the tortures, the oppressions, of which upright men have been guilty, under the impression that they were righteously castigating 'moral evil'.



The right discipline consists, not in external compulsion, but in habits of mind which lead spontaneously to desirable rather than undesirable activities.



What will be the good of the conquest of leisure and health, if no one remembers how to use them?


(新保守主義を標榜する政治家や評論家などは,「義務」教育については,自立的な判断ができる「人間」を養うよりも,彼らが「国民」として備えるべきと考える知識や感性を子供たちにに注入し,法律や秩序を守り,国家のためになる人間を養うことが重要と考えているのではないでしょうか? 高等教育になればだいぶ様子がかわってきますが,それでも,一部のエリートを除いて,多くの国民は国家のために,「その次に」世界のために役立つ人間をできるだけ多く養成したいと考えているのではないでしょうか? 教育再生会議のメンバーの多くも・・・?)

There can be no agreement between those who regard education as a means of instilling certain definite beliefs, and those who think that it should produce the power of independent judgement.

★★★ n.00001~0066は『幸福論』から引用したものです。★★★


(愛する人のために自己を犠牲にすることを万人がみならうべき徳目としたらどうなるであろうか。/自分の幸福のために自分の愛する人が犠牲になるとしたら,愛されている人も心苦しいであろう。/「愛する人のために」という言葉を「愛する国のために(敵国と戦う)」とか「家族を守るために(敵国と戦う)」と言い換えたらどうであろうか? 自分たちの国土が侵略にあったのであれば是非そうしなければならないだろうが,よその国に赴いて「日本のため」「愛する人々のため」などと'自己犠牲'を強調してもそれは自己欺瞞ではないか? そう思わない政治家や国民も少なくない。「日本のため」「愛する人々のため」であれば外国に赴いて外国人を殺すこと(攻撃は最大の防御)は'必要悪'とでも言うのであろうか? 「はむかってくるから自衛のために戦うだけ」と言っても,では日本に外国の軍隊が'平和を維持するため'と言って侵入してきたらどうか。彼らも同じような言い方をするであろう。/固有の文化に対する愛着ではなく,' 国体'のような'「政治的な愛国心」を強調する人々は自己欺瞞に陥っているのか,そうでないとしたら,単に冷静かつ客観的に物事を考える能力に欠けているだけなのであろうか?)

We should desire the happiness of those whom we love, but not as an alternative to our own.



The happy man is the man who lives objectively, who has free affections and wide interests, who secures his happiness through these interests and affections and through the fact that they, in turn, make him an object of interest and affection to many others.



Those who can only do their work when upheld by self-deception had better first take a course in learning to endure the truth before continuing their career, since sooner or later the need of being sustained by myths will cause their work to become harmful instead of beneficial.



Efficiency in a practical task is not proportional to the emotion that we put into it.


 '賢い人間'は--防げる不幸を座視することはしないが--'避けられない不幸'に時間と感情を浪費することもしないだろう。 (★出典

The wise man, though he wiil not sit down under preventable misfortunes, will not waste time and emotion upon such as are unavoidable, and even such as are in themselves avoidable he will submit to if the time and labour required to avoid them would interfere with the pursuit of some more important object.


 真理はいつも面白いわけでないが,多くの事柄が--実際には,面白いという以外に有利な証拠はほとんどないが--面白いという理由(だけ)で信じられる。 (★出典

Truth is not always interesting, and many things are believed because they are interesting; although, in fact, there is little other evidence in their favour.


 不幸に遭遇したときによく耐えるためには,幸福な時期に,ある程度幅広い興味・関心を養っておくことが賢明である。 (★出典

To bear misfortune well when it comes, it is wise to have cultivated in happier times a certain width of interests.


 現代の高等教育の欠点の一つは,ある種の技術・技能を獲得するための訓練があまりにも多すぎ,'世界の偏見のない概観(調査)'によって'知性'と'心'を広げることがあまりにも少なすぎた,という点である。 (★出典

It is one of the defects of modern higher education that it has become too much a training in the acquisition of certain kinds of skill, and too little an enlargement of the mind and heart by any impartial survey of the world.


 '狂信'の本質は,望ましいことを1つか2つ覚えていて,それ以外のことは全て忘れてしまい,この1つか2つのことを追求するにあたっては,他の種類のいかなる付随的に起こる害も大したことではない,と考えることにある (★出典

Fanaticism consists essentially in remembering one or two desirable things while forgetting all the rest, and in supposing that in the pursuit of these one or two any incidental harm of other sorts is of little account


 私たちはみな,不当に興奮したり,不当に緊張したり,自分たちの住んでいる世界の片隅や,生と死の間のほんの一瞬の時間の重要性を不当に買いかぶる傾向がある。 (★出典

We are all inclined to get unduly excited, unduly strained, unduly impressed with the importance of the little corner of the world in which we live, and of the little moment of time comprised between our birth and death.


 私たちは,自分たちの職業や,自分たちの仲間社会,自分たちの仕事の種類に非常にたやすく没頭するために,それらが人間活動全体の中のいかに小さな部分でしかないか,また,私たちの活動によって,世界中のいかに多くのものがまったく影響されないかということを,忘れてしまう。 (★出典

It is very easy to become so absorbed in our own pursuits, our own circle, our own type of work, that we forget how small a part this is of the total of human acitivity and how many things in the world are entirely unaffected by what we do.


 仕事が終われば仕事のことは忘れ,翌日再開するまで思い出さない人は,その間ずっと仕事のことを気にかけている人よりも,ずっとよい仕事をしそうである。 (★出典

It is very much easier to forget work at the times when it ought to be forgotten if a man has many interests other than his work than it is if he has not.


 眠っているとき以外,'意識的な心'は決して休むことを許されないが,一方,'意識下の思考'は,徐々に知恵をつけ,成熟していく。 (★出典

Except in sleep the conscious mind is never allowed to lie fallow while subconscious thought matures its gradual wisdom.


 不幸や疲労や'神経の緊張'の原因の一つは,自分自身の生活において実際的な重要性のないいかなるものに対しても興味・関心を持つことができないことである。 (★出典
(注:岩波文庫の安藤訳では,「そういうことの果てに,意識的な心は,ある少数の事柄から休息を得ることができなくなる。しかもそうした事柄の一つ一つには,おそらく,多少の不安と多少の不安の要素が含まれているのだ」となっているが,これだとニュアンスがよくわからない。/(松下の解釈)from は「原因(・・・のために)」:自分や家族にとって重要性のあるものに注意が集中し,他のものには,興味が持てなくなる→すると,わずかな(少数の)心配事なども,(通常であればそのような些細な心配事は,気分転換によってうまく処理されるのであるが,)頭の片隅に残ってしまい,それが原因で気が休めなくなる。また,表面上は振り払ったと思っても,意識下では働いていて,やはり休息がとれなくなる)

One of the sources of unhappiness, fatigue, and nervous strain is inability to be interested in anything that is not of practical importance in one's own life.


 '首尾一貫した目的'だけでは,人生を幸福にするのに十分ではないが,首尾一貫した目的は幸福な人生のためのほぼ必須といってよい条件である。 (★出典

Consistent purpose is not enough to make life happy, but it is an almost indispensable condition of a happy life.


 重要な種類の建設的な仕事をする機会ほど,'憎しみの習慣'を治してくれそうなものは,ほとんどない。 (★出典

Few things are so likely to cure the habit of hatred as the opportunity to do constructive work of an important kind..


 最も満足できる目的'とは,1つの成功から次の成功へと無限に導く,決して'終わりのない目的'である。そして,この点において,'建設'は,'破壊'よりもいっそう'大きな幸福の源'であることがわかるであろう。 (★出典

The most satisfactory purposes are those that lead on indefinitely from one success to another without ever coming to a dead end; and in this respect it will be found that construction is a greater source of happiness than destruction.



To be able to fill leisure intelligently is the last product of civilisation, and at present very few people have reached this level.


(「自分が死んだらすべておしまい」としか考えられない人は,不幸な晩年を過ごすことになりやすい。自分が死んでも自分の子孫を通して末永く生命は続いていくと思えば少し心は安らぐ。このような情緒は,無神論者であっても可能である。/それでは子供のない人間は? 他人の子供であっても自分の子供のように愛情を持てる人間は,子供がいても愛情を持てない人間に比べ,ずっと幸福であるだろう)

To be happy in this world, especially when youth is past, it is necessary to feel oneself not merely an isolated individual whose day will soon be over, but part of the stream of life flowing on from the first germ to the remote and unknown future.



Affection of parents for children and of children for parents is capable of being one of the greatest sources of happiness, but in fact at the present day the relations of parents and chndren are, in nine cases out of ten, a source of unhappiness to both parties, and in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred a source of unhappiness to at least one of the two parties.



Affection in the sense of a genuiun reciprocal interest for two persons in each other, not solely as means to each other's good, but rather as a combination having a common good, is one of the most important elements of real happiness, and the man whose ego is so enclosed within steel walls that this enlargement of it is impossible misses the best that life has to offer, however suceessful he may be in his career.


(Love is blind/あばたもえくぼ/一生そうであれば幸福なのだが,いずれ熱も冷め・・・/お互いを見詰め合うよりも,同じ方向を見つめたほうが・・・)

Many people when they fall in love look for a little haven of refuge from the world, where they can be sure of being admired when they are not admirable, and praised when they are not - praiseworthy.



The man in whom one desire runs to excess at the expense of all others is usually a man with some deep seated trouble, who is seeking to escape from a spectre.


Very specialised interests are, however, a less satisfactory source of happiness than a general zest for lffe, since they can hardly fill the whole of a man's time, and there is always the danger that he may come to know all there is to know about the particular matter that has become his hobby.



It is quite impossible to guess in advance what will interest a man, but most men are capable of a keen interest in something or other, and when once such an interest has been aroused their life becomes free from tedium.



Life is too short to be interested in everything, but it is good to be interested in as many things as are necessary to fill our days.



The more things a man is interested in, the more opportunities of happiness he has, and the less he is at the mercy of fate.


(これは多数のホームページ上の格言集で引用されています。/「一文」格言(one sentence aphorism)ではなくなってしまいましたが・・・。)

The secret of happiness is this: let your interests be as wide as possible, and let your reactions to the things and persons that interest you be as far as possible friendly rather than hostile.



To like many people spontaneously and without effort is perhaps the greatest of all sources of personal happiness.



A friendly interest in persons is a form of affectionateness, but not the form which is grasping and possessive and seeking always an emphatic response.



The man who underestimates himself is perpetually being surprised by success, whereas the man who overestimates himself is just as often surprised by failure.



The best way to increase toleration is to multiply the number of individuals who enjoy real happiness and do not therefore find their chief pleasure in the infliction of pajn upon their fellow-men.



When the young attempt to regulate the lives of the old, as, for example, by objecting to the remarriage of a widowed parent, they are quite as much in the wrong as are the old who attempt to regulate the lives of the young



It easily seems to the young as if the only milieu with which they are acquainted were representative of the whole world.



Don't imagine that most people give enough thought to you to have any special desire to persecute you.



Don't expect others to take as much interest in you as you do yourself.



Don't over-estimate your own merits



Remember that your motives are not always as altruistic as they seem to yourself.



Nobody should expect to be prefect, or be unduly troubled by the fact that he is not.



The happiness that requires intoxication of no matter what sort is a spurious and unsatisfying kind.



On the contrary, since rationality consists in the main of internal harmony, the man who achieves it is freer in his contemplation of the world and in the use of his energies to achieve external purposes than is the man who is perpetually hampered by inward conflicts..



Nothing so much diminishes not only happiness but efficiency as a personality divided against itself.



When a rational conviction has been arrived at, it is necessary to dwell upon it, to follow out its consequences, to search out in oneself whatever beliefs inconsistent with the new conviction might otherwise survive.



Whenever you begin to feel remorse for an act which your reason tells you is not wicked, examine the causes of your feeling of remorse, and convince yourself in detail of their absurdity.



Gradually as he grew older he forgot where his moral code had come from and what had originally been the penalty for disobeying it, but he did not throw off the moral code or cease to feel that something dreadful was liable to happen to him if he infringed it.


(良心? 24時間愛は'地球を救う'? それもいいけど,年に2,3回だけそんな気になるだけで普段'地球に悪いことをやっている'ようでは・・・。罪滅ぼし? 時々そんな気分になれば,免罪符になる?/愛国(心)教育よりも,相互理解のための教育をもっとやるべき)

We know that conscience enjoins different acts in different parts of the world, and,that broadly speaking it is everywhere in agreement with tribal custom.



Envy, in fact, is one form of a vice, partly moral, partly intellectual, which consists in seeing things never in themselves, but only in their relations.



The habit of thinking in terms of comparisons is a fatal one.



The envious person derives pain from what others have, instead of deriving pleasure from what he has.



Desire for excitement, when it goes beyond a point, is a sign either of a twisted disposition or of some instinctive dissatisfaction.



One of the symptoms of approaching nervous breakdown is the belief that one's work is terribly important, and that to take a holiday would bring all kinds of disaster.



The man who can centre his thoughts and hopes upon something transcending self can find a certain peace in the ordinary troubles of life which is impossible to the pure egoist.



In flying from the fructifying kind of boredom, they fall a prey to the other far worse kind.



A boy or young man who has some serious constructive purpose will endure voluntarily a great deal of boredom if he finds that it is necessary by the way.



All great books contain boring portions, and all great lives have contained uninteresting stretches.



A certain power of enduring boredom is therefore essential to a happy life, and is one of the things that ought to be taught to the young.



A life too full of excitement is an exhausting life, in which continually stronger stimuli are needed to give the thrill that has come to be thought an essential part of pleasure.



We are less bored than our ancestors were, but we are more afraid of boredom.



Boredom is essentially a thwarted desire for events, not necessarily pleasant ones, but just occurrences such as will enable the victim of ennui to know one day from another.


(何をもって「成功」と言えるか?/「成功」は幸福のため? それとも自己満足のため? あるいは虚栄心を満足させるため?/「勝ち組」だと思ったら,自分に負けた「負け組」だった?)

What I do maintain is that success can only be one ingredient in happiness, and is too dearly porchased if all the other ingredients have been sacrificed to obtain it.



It is very singular how little men seem to realise that they are not caught in the grip of a mechanism from which there is no escape, but that the treadmill is one upon which they remain merely because they have not noticed that it fails to take them up to a higher level.



Love is the first and commonest form of emotion leading to cooperation, and those who have experienced love with any intensity will not be content with a philosophy that supposes their highest good to be independent of that of the person loved.



It is very pleasant to have someone at hand who is sure to praise your work, whether it deserves it or not.



The habit of looking to the future and thinking that the whole meaning of the present lies in what it will bring forth is a pernicious one.



The typical unhappy man is one who, having been deprived in youth of some normal satisfaction, has come to value this one kind of satisfaction more than any other, and has therefore given to his life a one-sided direction, together with a quite undue emphasis upon the achievement as opposed to the activities connected with it.



To discover a system for the avoidance of war is a vital need for our civlisation; but no such system has a chance while men are so unhappy that mutual extermination seems to them less dreadful than continued endurance of the light of day.