(本館)  (トップ)  (分館)

Portal Site for Russellian in Japan

The Conquest of Happiness(松下彰良・訳)

Back Next  Part I(Causes of Unhappiness), Chap.7:The sense of sin  
 こうしたことのもともとの原因(源泉)は,ほとんどすべての場合,その人が6歳以前に母親や乳母から受けたしつけ(←倫理的・道徳的な教え)にある。彼は6歳以前に,悪口を言うのは邪悪である,(貴婦人が使うような)上品な言葉以外の言葉を使うのは余りよくない,悪い人間だけが酒を飲む,タバコは最高の美徳とは両立しない,といったことを教わった(←彼女らから学んだ)。決して嘘をついてはいけないと(彼女らから)教えられた。そして,特に,性器についてはいかなる興味を持つことも忌まわしいことであるとしつけられた。彼は,こうした教えが母の見解であることを知っていたし,彼の(=人間の)創造主の考え(見解)であると信じていた。母親に愛情をもってかまってもらうこと,あるいは,母親が冷淡な場合には乳母にかわいがってもらうことは,彼にとって,人生の最大の喜びであったが,それは,彼が道徳上の規範にそむかなかった場合にのみ獲得できた。そこで彼は,母親や乳母が非難しそうに思われる行為と漠然と恐ろしいものとを結びつけて考えるようになったのである。年をとるにつれて,しだいに,自分の道徳規範がどこから来たものか,それに違反した場合の罰は元来どんなものであったか忘れていったが,その道徳規範を捨ててしまうこともなかったし,またそれを犯せば何か恐ろしいことがわが身に降りかかりやすいと考えることもやめなかった。 <

But the sense of sin in its most important forms is something which goes deeper. It is something which has its roots in the unconscious, and does not appear in consciousness as fear of other people's disapproval. In consciousness certain kinds of acts are labelled Sin for no reason visible to introspection. When a man commits these acts he feels uncomfortable without quite knowing why. He wishes he were the kind of man who could abstain from what he believes to be sin. He gives moral admiration only to those whom he believes to be pure in heart. He recognises with a greater or less degree of regret that it is not for him to be a saint; indeed, his conception of saintship is probably one which it is nearly impossible to carry out in an ordinary everyday life. Consequently he goes through life with a sense of guilt, feeling that the best is not for him, and that his highest moments are those of maudlin penitence.
The source of all this in practically every case is the moral teaching which the man received before he was six years old at the hands of his mother or his nurse. He learned before that age that it is wicked to swear, and not quite nice to use any but the most ladylike language, that only bad men drink, and that tobacco is incompatible with the highest virtue. He learned that one should never tell a lie. And above all he learned that any interest in the sexual parts is an abomination. He knew these to be the view of his mother, and believed them to be those of his Creator. To be affectionately treated by his mother, or, if she was neglectful by his nurse, was the greatest pleasure of his life, and was only obtainable when he had not been known to sin against the moral code. He therefore came to associate something vaguely awful with any conduct of which his mother or nurse would disapprove. Gradually as he grew older he forgot where his moral code had come from and what had originally been the penalty for disobeying it, but he did not throw off the moral code or cease to feel that something dreadful was liable to happen to him if he infringed it.