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バートランド・ラッセル自伝 第1巻第2章
ユニテリアンの教義(松下彰良 訳)

The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell, v.1

前ページ 次ページ 第1巻 第2章(青年期)累積版 総目次
* 松下正寿「バートランド・ラッセルの宗教観」
* 『拝啓バートランド・ラッセル様』より
* 野田又夫「ラッセル著『宗教は必要か』(東宮隆訳)について」
* 「神の存在証明」に対する反駁
* 左挿絵出典: B. Russell's The Good Citizen's Alphabet, 1953.
* 右挿絵出典: B. Russell's Nightmares of Eminent Persons, 1954.


 最初に取り上げたのは,(人間の)'自由意志'(の問題)である 。15歳の年に私は,生物であろうが無生物であろうが,物体の運動は完全に力学の法則にしたがって進行し,それゆえ'意志'は'肉体'の上に何の影響も及ぼし得ない,と確信するようになった。私はこの時期,ギリシア文字を使った英語で(訳注:実際は英語の文章だがギリシア語(文字)に単純に一語一語変換したということ),「ギリシア語の練習帳(右下画像)という標題をつけたノートに,私の考えたことをよく書いた。(ラッセル原注:このノートの若干の部分を,本書のp.50からp.63まで収録してある。)このようにしたのは,私の考えていることを誰かに知られはしないかと恐れてのことであった。このノートに私は,人間の肉体は'1つの機械'であるという確信を記した。私は唯物論者(ゆいぶつろんしゃ)になったら知的満足を味わったろうと思うが,しかし,デカルト−−私はその頃,デカルトは数学におけるデカルト座標の考案者であるというだけしか知らなかった−−(が考えた)のとほとんど同じ根拠から,'意識'(の存在)が否定し得ない事実でありそれゆえ純粋の唯物論は不可能である,という結論に達した。これが,15歳の時のことであった。
Alongside with my interest in poetry, went an intense interest in religion and philosophy. My grandfather was Anglican, my grandmother was a Scotch Presbyterian, but gradually became a Unitarian. I was taken on alternate Sundays to the (Episcopalian) Parish Church at Petersham and to the Presbyterian Church at Richmond, while at home I was taught the doctrines of Unitarianism. It was these last that I believed until about the age of fifteen. At this age I began a systematic investigation of the supposed rational arguments in favour of fundamental Christian beliefs. I spent endless hours in meditation upon this subject; I could not speak to anybody about it for fear of giving pain. I suffered acutely both from the gradual loss of faith and from the need of silence. I thought that if I ceased to believe in God, freedom and immortality, I should be very unhappy. I found, however, that the reasons given in favour of these dogmas were very unconvincing. I considered them one at a time with great seriousness. The first to go was free will. At the age of fifteen, I became convinced that the motions of matter, whether living or dead, proceeded entirely in accordance with the laws of dynamics, and therefore the will can have no influence upon the body. I used at this time to write down my reflections in English written in Greek letters in a book headed 'Greek Exercises'(Some portions of this book are included on pp. 42 to 52.). I did this for fear lest someone should find out what I was thinking. In this book I recorded my conviction that the human body is a machine. I should have found intellectual satisfaction in becoming a materialist, but on grounds almost identical with those of Descartes (who was unknown to me except as the inventor of Cartesian dinates), I came to the conclusion that consciousness is an undeniable datum, and therefore pure materialism is impossible. This was at the age of fifteen. About two years later, I became convinced that there is no life after death, but I still believed in God, because the 'First Cause' argument appeared to be irrefutable. At the age of eighteen, however, shortly before I went to Cambridge, I read Mill's Autobiography, where I found a sentence to the effect that his father taught him that the question 'Who made me ?' cannot be answered, since it immediately suggests the further question 'Who made God ?'. This led me to abandon the 'First Cause' argument, and to become an atheist. Throughout the long period of religious doubt, I had been rendered very unhappy by the gradual loss of belief, but when the process was completed, I found to my surprise that I was quite glad to be done with the whole subject.