バートランド・ラッセル「神の存在(証明)」* 原著: Why I am not a Christian, 1927, chap.5.)
(挿絵：ラッセルの Nightmares of Eminent Persons,1954より)
(You know, of course, that the Catholic Church has laid it down as a dogma that the existence of God can be proved by the unaided reason. That is a somewhat curious dogma, but it is one of their dogmas. They had to introduce it because at one time the freethinkers adopted the habit of saying that there were such and such arguments which mere reason might urge against the existence of God, but of course they knew as a matter of faith that God did exist. The arguments and the reasons were set out at great length, and the Catholic Church felt that they must stop it. Therefore they laid it down that the existence of God can be proved by the unaided reason and they had to set up what they considered were arguments to prove it. There are, of course, a number of them, but I shall take only a few.
The First-cause Argument
The Natural-law Argument
The Argument from Design
The Moral Arguments for Deity
The Argument for the Remedying of Injustice)