Source: Why I am not a Christian, 1927, chap.5.)


 カトリック教会は、教義として、神の存在が独自の理由で(他の力を借りないで、自力で by the unaided reason)証明できると断定している。それは奇妙な教義だが、一時自由思想家が、理性を働かせれば神の存在を論破できると言ったことから、(カトリック教会は)神の存在の証明法を考えたのである。自由思想家も、信仰の問題として神の存在を扱っていたのである。
  1. 第一原因による証明法
  2. 自然法則による証明法
  3. 神の意向による証明法
  4. 神のための道徳的証明法
  5. 不公平の償いとしての証明法

(挿絵:ラッセルの Nightmares of Eminent Persons,1954より)
(You know, of course, that the Catholic Church has laid it down as a dogma that the existence of God can be proved by the unaided reason. That is a somewhat curious dogma, but it is one of their dogmas. They had to introduce it because at one time the freethinkers adopted the habit of saying that there were such and such arguments which mere reason might urge against the existence of God, but of course they knew as a matter of faith that God did exist. The arguments and the reasons were set out at great length, and the Catholic Church felt that they must stop it. Therefore they laid it down that the existence of God can be proved by the unaided reason and they had to set up what they considered were arguments to prove it. There are, of course, a number of them, but I shall take only a few.
The First-cause Argument
The Natural-law Argument
The Argument from Design
The Moral Arguments for Deity
The Argument for the Remedying of Injustice)