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Bertrand Russell: On Education, 1926

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 今や(第4章の)恐怖(注:Fear と大文字になっているのは,一般的な 'fear' ではなく,第4章でとりあげたものを指しているため)の問題に類似したある問題にたどりついた(たどりついている)。なぜ類似しているかというと,我々は,一部は本能的で,大部分は望ましくない,強い衝動に関心を抱いているから(そういう点で類似しているから)である。そのような場合には,子供の本性を妨げないように注意を払わなければならない。子供の本性を見ないふりをしたり,子供の本性が違ったものであればいいと願ったりするのは,無益である。私たちは生の素材を与えられたままに受け入れるべきであり,何か違った材料にしか適用できないような仕方で,それを取り扱おうとしてはならない。

Pt.2 Education of Character)

Chap. 7: Selfishness and property (OE07-010)

I come now to a problem analogous to that of Fear, in that we are concerned with an impulse which is strong, partly instinctive, and largely undesirable. In all such cases, we have to be careful not to thwart a child's nature. It is useless to shut our eyes to his nature, or to wish that it were different; we must accept the raw material which is provided, and not attempt to treat it in ways only applicable to some different material.
Selfishness is not an ultimate ethical conception ; the more it is analysed, the vaguer it becomes. But as a phenomenon in the nursery it is perfectly definite, and presents problems with which it is very necessary to cope. Left to himself, an older child will seize a younger child's toys, demand more than his share of grown-up attention, and generally pursue his desires regardless of the younger child's disappointments. A human ego, like a gas, will always expand unless restrained by external pressure. The object of education, in this respect, is to let the external pressure take the form of habits, ideas, and sympathies in the child's own mind, not of knocks and blows and punishments. The idea which is needed is that of justice, not self-sacrifice. Every person has a right to a certain amount of room in the world, and should not be made to feel wicked in standing up for what is due to him. When self-sacrifice is taught, the idea seems to be that it will not be fully practised, and that the practical result will be about right. But in fact people either fail to learn the lesson, or feel sinful when they demand mere justice, or carry self-sacrifice to ridiculous extremes. In the last case, they feel an obscure resentment against the people to whom they make renunciations, and probably allow selfishness to return by the backdoor of a demand for gratitude. In any case, self-sacrifice cannot be true doctrine, because it cannot be universal ; and it is most undesirable to teach falsehood as a means to virtue, because when the falsehood is perceived the virtue evaporates. Justice, on the contrary, can be universal. Therefore justice is the conception that we ought to try to instil into the child's thoughts and habits.

(掲載日:2015.04.07/更新日: )