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バートランド・ラッセル 幸福論
人が望まない「善行」を行う(松下彰良 訳)

The Conquest of Happiness, by Bertrand Russell

Back Next  Chap.8:Persecution Mania   Contents(総目次)
* 右下イラスト出典:B. Russell's Nightmares of Eminent Persons, 1954.

 政治の高い階層(higher walks)においても,同種のことが起こる。安楽を控え,公的生活の舞台に立たせるよう導いた'高邁で気高い目的'を実行するために,次第に自分の持てる全力を集中するようになった政治家は,民衆が彼に敵対しはじめると,その感謝のなさ(忘恩)に驚かされる。自分の仕事には決して'公的とは言えない動機'があったかもしれないとか,種々の公務をコントロール(支配したり制御したり)する楽しさが多少とも自分の活動の源になっていたかもしれない,といった考えは,まったく彼の頭(心)には浮かんでこない。壇上や政党機関誌における常套句が,彼には,次第に真理を表しているように思われてくる。そして,党派根性に根ざすレトリックを,動機の本物の分析だと取り違える。世間から見捨てられ,世間に幻滅すると,彼らから世間が身を引くように,彼も世間から身を引き,そうして,'公共の善(福祉)の追求という感謝されない仕事'に努力したことを後悔するのである。
Another not uncommon victim of persecution mania is a certain type of philanthropist who is always doing good to people against their will, and is amazed and horrified that they display no gratitude. Our motives in doing good are seldom as pure as we imagine them to be. Love of power is insidious; it has many disguises, and is often the source of the pleasure we derive from doing what we believe to be good to other people. Not infrequently, yet another element enters in. 'Doing good' to people generally consists in depriving them of some pleasure: drink, or gambling, or idleness, or what not. In this case there is an element which is typical of much social morality, namely envy of those who are in a position to commit sins from which we have to abstain if we are to retain the respect of our friends. Those who vote, let us say, for law against cigarette smoking (such laws exist, or existed, in several American States) are obviously non-smokers to whom the pleasure which others derive from tobacco is a source of pain. If they expect those who were previously cigarette fiends to come in a deputation and thank them for emancipation from this odious vice, it is possible that they may be disappointed. They may then begin to reflect that they have given their lives for the public good, and that those who have most reason for thanking them for their beneficent activities appear to be the least aware of any occasion for gratitude.
One used to find the same kind of attitude on the part of mistresses towards domestic servants whose morals they safe-guarded. But is these days the servant problem has become so acute that this form of kindness to maids has become less common.
In the higher walks of politics the same sort of thing occurs. The statesman who has gradually concentrated all power within himself in order that he may be able to carry out the high and noble aims which have led him to eschew comfort and enter the arena of public life, is amazed at the ingratitude of the people when they turn against him. It never occurs to him that his work may have had anything but a public motive, or that the pleasure of controlling affairs may have in any degree inspired his activities. The phrases which are customary on the platform and in the Party Press have gradually come to him to seem to express truths, and he mistakes the rhetoric of partisanship for a genuine analysis of motives. Disgusted and disillusioned, he retires from the world after the world has retired from him, and regrets that he ever attempted so thankless a task as the pursuit of the public good.