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Bertrand Russell: On Education/

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 遊びを好むことは,人間であれ獣であれ,若い動物の最もはっきりした特徴である。人間の子供の場合,遊び好きには,(さらに)'まねごと'(ゴッゴ)に対する尽きることのない喜びが伴っている。(注:岩波文庫版の安藤訳では,主語の This を「遊び」ととり,「遊びは,まねごとに対する尽きせぬ喜びを伴う」と訳されている。しかし,★主語は,前文との関係から,「Love of play '遊び好き'」ととるべきであろう。)遊びと'まねごと'(ゴッゴ)は,幼年時代の不可欠の必要物であり,子供を幸福で健康にしてやりたければ,そういう活動が何かほかにも役に立つかどうかは関係なく,そのための機会を用意してあげなければならない。このことに関連した,教育にかかわる問題が二つある。第一に,そういう機会を用意するにあたって,親や学校は何をなすべきか。第二に,ゲーム(遊戯)を教育上より役立つようにするために,親や学校はさらになすべきことがあるのか。

Pt.2 Education of Character_Chap. 5: Play and fancy

Love of play is the most obvious distinguishing mark of young animals, whether human or otherwise. In human children, this is accompanied by an inexhaustible pleasure in pretence. Play and pretence are a vital need of childhood, for which opportunity must be provided if the child is to be happy and healthy, quite independently of any further utility in these activities. There are two questions which concern education in this connection : first, what should parents and schools do in the way of providing opportunity? and secondly, should they do anything more, with a view to increasing the educational usefulness of games?
Let us begin with a few words about the psychology of games. This has been exhaustively treated by Groos ; a shorter discussion will be found in William Stern's book mentioned in the preceding chapter. There are two separate questions in this matter : the first is as to the impulses which produce play, the second is as to its biological utility. The second is the easier question. There seems no reason to doubt the most widely accepted theory, that in play the young of any species rehearse and practise the activities which they will have to perform in earnest later on. The play of puppies is exactly like a dog-fight, except that they do not actually bite each other. The play of kittens resembles the behaviour of cats with mice. Children love to imitate any work they have been watching, such as building or digging ; the more important the work seems to them, the more they like to play at it. And they enjoy anything that gives them new muscular facilities, such as jumping, climbing, or walking up a narrow plank--always provided the task is not too difficult. But although this accounts,- in a general way, for the usefulness of the play-impulse, it does not by any means cover all its manifestations, and must not for a moment be regarded as giving a psychological analysis.

(掲載日:2015.03.21/更新日: )