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バートランド・ラッセル 幸福論 第7章
幼児期における道徳教育(松下彰良 訳)

The Conquest of Happiness, by Bertrand Russell

Back Next  Chap.7:The sense of sin  Contents(総目次)

 しかし,早い時期(幼児期)における道徳教育が害を及ぼすのは,特に性(セックス)の領域においてである。もしも子供が,多少厳しい両親や乳母によって因習的なしつけ(←教育)を受けてきた場合には,罪と性器との関連づけ(性器のイメージと罪(悪いこと)のイメージを結びつけること)が6歳までにかなりしっかりと確立され,その後一生,両者の関連を断って,元の状態に戻すことはできそうもない。この感情は,もちろん,エディプス・コンプレックスOedipus complexによって強化される。なぜなら,子供によって(←幼少時代において)最も愛される女性は,いかなる性的な自由も許されない(←不可能な)女性(対象)だからである。その結果,成人した男性の多くは,女性はセックスによって堕落すると感じ,妻が性交を嫌悪しないかぎり,妻を'尊敬'することができなくなる。しかし,冷たい妻を持っている男性は,本能に駆られて,別のところで(妻以外から),性本能の満足を求めようとするだろう。だが,本能の満足は,刹那的に感じられたとしても,'罪の意識'のために毒され,それゆえ,結婚生活の中であれ外であれ,女性との関係で幸福になることはできない。女性の側でも,いわゆる'純潔な'女性であることを過度に強調してしつけられてきた場合には,同様なことが生じる。彼女(妻)は,夫との性関係において本能的にしりごみをし,そこからいかなる快楽も引き出すことを恐れる。しかし,今日(本書の出版は,1930年)では,50年前に比べると,女性の側ではこういう事態ははるかに少なくなっている。現在,教養ある(教育を受けた)人びとの間では,男性の性生活は,女性よりも,罪の意識によってよりゆがめられ,より毒されているように思われる。

But it is above all in the realm of sex that early moral teaching does harm.  If a child has been conventionally educated by somewhat stern parents or nurses, the association between sin and the sex organs is so firmly established by the time he is six years old that it is unlikely ever to be completely undone throughout the rest of his life. This feeling is, of course, reinforced by the Oedipus complex, since the woman most loved in childhood is one with whom all sexual freedoms are impossible. The result is that many adult men feel women to be degraded by sex, and cannot respect their wives unless their wives hate sexual intercourse. But the man whose wife is cold will be driven by instinct to seek instinctive satisfaction elsewhere. His instinctive satisfaction, however, even if he momentarily finds it, will be poisoned by the sense of guilt, so that he cannot be happy in any relation with a woman, whether in marriage or outside it. On the woman's side the same sort of thing happens if she has been very emphatically taught to be what is called 'pure'. She instinctively holds herself back in her sexual relations with her husband, and is afraid of deriving any pleasure from them. In the present day, however, there is very much less of this on the part of women than there was fifty years ago. I should say that at present among educated people the sex life of men is more contorted and more poisoned by the sense of sin than that of women.
There is beginning to be widespread awareness, though not of course on the part of public authorities, of the evils of traditional sex education in regard to the very young. The right rule is simple: until a child is nearing the age of puberty teach him or her no sexual morality whatever, and carefully avoid instilling the idea that there is anything disgusting in the natural bodily functions. As the time approaches when it becomes necessary to give moral instruction, be sure that it is rational, and that at every point you can give good grounds for what you say. But it is not on education that I wish to speak in this book. In this book I am concerned rather with what the adult can do to minimise the evil effects of unwise education in causing an irrational sense of sin.