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『ラッセル教育論』(Bertrand Russell On Education/松下彰良・訳)

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第二部 性格の教育
 第13章 保育園(OE13-110)

  これまでの諸章において,私は,(子どもが)大きくなってから幸福と有用性の源泉となる習慣を創りだす面において,幼い子供のためにどんなことをしてあげられるかについて概要を述べることに努めてきた。しかし,私は,この訓練を親が与えるべきか,あるいは,特にこの目的のために設けられた学枚で与えるべきか,という問題は論じてこなかった。保育園の方を支持する議論が断然圧倒的であり,それも,貧乏で無知で,過重労働を強いられている親を持つ子供たちのためだけではなく,すべての子供たちのために,少なくとも都会に住んでいるすべての子供たちのためにもよい,というものである(松下注:都会は遊び場が少なく,子どもが家に閉じこもり,同年代の子供と接触する機会がとても少ないため))。デットフォードにあるマーガレット・マクラン女史(Margaret McMillan, 1860-1931:幼児教育家)の保育園にいる子供たちは,裕福な両親を持ついかなる子供たちが現在望める以上のすばらしい教育を受けている,と私は信じている。同様な制度が,貧富を問わず,あらゆる子供たちに広がることを期待したい。それはともかく,現実の保育園について論ずる前に,こそういった施設(保育園)を望むわけとしてどのような理由があるのか,考えてみよう。

(Pt.2 Education of Character)
Chap.13 nursery school (OE13-010)

In previous chapters I have tried to give an outline of what can be done for the young child in the way of creating the habits which will give happiness and usefulness in later life. But I have not discussed the question whether parents are to give this training, or whether it is to be given in schools designed for the purpose. I think the arguments in favour of the nursery school are quite overwhelming--not only for children whose parents are poor, ignorant, and over-worked, but for all children, or, at the very least, for all children who live in towns. I believe that the children at Miss Margaret McMillan's nursery school in Deptford get something better than any children of well-to-do parents can at present obtain. I should like to see the same system extended to all children, rich and poor alike. But before discussing any actual nursery school, let us see what reasons there are for desiring such an institution.
To begin with, early childhood is of immeasurable importance both medically and psychologically. These two aspects are very closely intertwined. For example : fear will make a child breathe badly, and breathing badly will predispose it to a variety of diseases. 【note: On this Subject cf. The Nursery School, by Margaret McMillan (Dent, I9I9), P. I97 ; The Camp School, by the same author (George Allen and Unwin, Ltd,)】 Such interrelations are so numerous that no one can hope to succeed with a child's character without some medical knowledge, or with its health without some psychology. In both directions, most of the knowledge required is very new, and much of it runs counter to time-honoured traditions. Take, for example, the question of discipline. The great principle in a contest with a child is : do not yield, but do not punish. The normal parent sometimes yields for the sake of a quiet life, and sometimes punishes from exasperation ; the right method, to be successful, requires a difficult combination of, patience and power of suggestion. This is a psychological example; fresh air is a medical example. Given care and wisdom, children profit by constant fresh air, day and night, with not too much clothing. But if care and wisdom are absent, the risk of chills from wet or sudden cold cannot be ignored.

(掲載日:2015.06.08/更新日: )