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バートランド・ラッセル 結婚論 第14章
離婚したほうがよい場合(松下 訳)

Marriage and Morals, 1929, by Bertrand Russell

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 第十四章 個人心理の中の家族 n.8

 母親の心理から見た場合,現在存在する家族の重要性を評価することはかなり難しい。妊娠授乳(lactation)の期間中,女性は,一般的に,男性による保護を望むある一定の本能的な傾向がある,と私は思っている。この感情は,類人猿から受け継いだものであるにちがいない。おそらく,現代の,どちらかと言えば過酷な世界にあって,この(男性による)保護なしで済まさなければならない女性は,いくらか過度に闘争的かつ自己主張的になりやすい。しかし,こういう感情は,ほんの一部しか本能的なものではない。もしも,国家が妊娠中(expectant)や乳飲み子を持つ母親(nursing mothers)と幼児の世話をするならば,こういう感情は,大いに弱められるだろうし,ある場合には,まったく消滅してしまうだろう。
 けれども,これに対しては,非常に多くの場合(ケース)において,別の考慮を持ち出さなければならない。女性が結婚生活においてかなり不幸な状態にあれば −そして,それは,結局,決して珍しいことではない− 彼女は子供を扱う際に,自分の不幸のために,正しい情緒的な安定(emotional poise)を保つことは非常にむずかしくなる。そのような場合は,彼女は疑いもなく,子供の父親と別れたほうが,よい母親になることができる。こうして,我々は,幸福な結婚はよいが不幸な結婚は悪いというつまらない結論に達するのである。

Chapter XIV: The Family in Individual Psychology, n.8

The importance of the family, as it exists at present, in the psychology of mothers is very difficult to estimate. I think that during pregnancy and lactation a woman has, as a rule, a certain instinctive tendency to desire a man's protection - a feeling, no doubt, inherited from the anthropoid apes. Probably a woman who, in our present rather harsh world, has to dispense with this protection tends to become somewhat unduly combative and self-assertive. These feelings, however, are only in part instinctive. They would be greatly weakened, and in some cases wholly abolished, if the State gave adequate care to expectant and nursing mothers and to young children. I think perhaps the chief harm that would be done to women by abolition of the father's place in the home would be the diminution in the intimacy and seriousness of their relations with the male sex. Human beings are so constructed that each sex has much to learn from the other, but mere sex relations, even when they are passionate, do not suffice for these lessons. Co-operation in the serious business of rearing children, and companionship through the long years involved, bring about a relation more important and more enriching to both parties than any that would exist if men had no responsibility for their children. And I do not think that mothers who live in a purely feminine atmosphere, or whose contacts with men are trivial, will, except in a minority of cases, be quite so good for their children from the point of view of emotional education as those who are happily married and co-operating at each stage with their husbands. One must, however, in a great many cases set other considerations over against these. If a woman is actively unhappy in her marriage - and this, after all, is by no means an uncommon occurrence - her unhappiness makes it very difficult for her to have the right kind of emotional poise in dealing with her children. In such cases she could undoubtedly be a better mother if she were quit of the father. We are thus led to the entirely trivial conclusion that happy marriages are good, while unhappy ones are bad.
(掲載日:2016.11.08/更新日: )