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Portal Site for Russellian in Japan

Power, 1938


Back(前ページ) Next(次ページ) 第4章_イントロ累積索引 Contents(総目次)

第4章 聖職者(僧侶)の権力 n.26

1)教皇権(教皇職)世襲のものではなかったので,従って,世俗的な王国がそうであったように,長い期間,少数派たち(注:minorities 少数民族や宗教の少数派)に悩まされなかった。人は,敬虔な行為,学問,あるいは政治的手腕による以外,教会内において高名になることは,容易にはできなかった。その結果,大部分の教皇は,一つあるいは二つ以上の点で(注:学問,政治的な手腕その他において),かなり平均を越えていた。世俗の君主(たち)も時として有能であったかも知れないけれども,しばしば,まったくその反対(無能)であった。その上,世俗の君主たちは教会人のように,自分の煩悩(様々な情熱)をコントロール(制御)する訓練をした経験がなかった。王たちは,離婚をしたいという欲求から、繰り返し苦境におちいったが,離婚の問題教会が扱う問題であったので,彼らは(王たち)は,教皇の思いのままに置かれた(のである}。時折,王たちは(英国王の)ヘンリー八世のやり方を試みたが,臣民(国民)はショックを受け,家臣忠誠の誓いから解放され,終には(教皇に)屈服するか没落するかしなければならなかった。



Chapter IV: Priestly Power, n.26

The rise and decline of papal power are worthy of study by anyone who wishes to understand the winning of power by propaganda. It is not enough to say that men were superstitious and believed in the power of the keys. Throughout the Middle Ages there were heresies, which would have spread, as Protestantism spread, if the Popes had not, on the whole, deserved respect. And without heresy secular rulers made vigorous attempts to keep the Church in subordination to the State. which failed in the West though they succeeded in the East. For this there were various reasons.
First: the Papacy was not hereditary, and was therefore not troubled with long minorities, as secular kingdoms were. A man could not easily rise to eminence in the Church except by piety, learning, or statesmanship ; consequently most Popes were men considerably above the average in one or more respects. Secular sovereigns might happen to be able, but were often quite the reverse ; moreover they had not the training in controlling their passions that ecclesiastics had. Repeatedly, kings got into difficulties from desire for divorce, which, being a matter for the Church, placed them at the mercy of the Pope. Sometimes they tried Henry VIII's way of dealing with this difficulty, but their subjects were shocked, their vassals were liberated from their oath of allegiance, and in the end they had to submit or fall.

Another great strength of the Papacy was its impersonal continuity. In the contest with Frederick II, it is astonishing how little difference is made by the death of a Pope. There was a body of doctrine, and a tradition of statecraft, to which kings could oppose nothing equally solid. It was only with the rise of nationalism that secular governments acquired any comparable continuity or tenacity of purpose.

In the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries, kings, as a rule, were ignorant, while most Popes were both learned and well-informed. Moreover kings were bound up with the feudal system, which was cumbrous, in constant danger of anarchy, and hostile to the newer economic forces. On the whole, during those centuries, the Church represented a higher civilization than that represented by the State.

(掲載日:2017.06.07/更新日: )