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バートランド・ラッセル 結婚論 第15章
親権と国家との関係(松下彰良 訳)

Marriage and Morals, 1929, by Bertrand Russell

Back(前) Forward (次) 第十五章 イントロ索引 Contents(総目次)

第十五章 家族と国家 n.1

 十九世紀の初めに,子供を工場で働かせることを禁止しようとする提案は,親の責任(責務)を弱めるだろうという理由ではげしく反対された。英国の法律は,古代ローマの法律と異なり(注:did not, like the that of ancient Rome, allow を「古代ローマの法律のように・・・を許さなかった」と訳すと,逆に解釈される危険がある。),親が子供をすみやかに苦痛をあたえずに殺すことを許さなかったが,親がゆっくりと(子供を)苦役で苦しめて,子供の生命を(徐々に)奪うことは許した(のである)(注:皮肉ですね)。この聖なる権利は,親や雇い主や経済学者によって擁護された。にもかかわらず,社会の道徳感情は,このような抽象的かつ学者ぶった考えにぞっとし(注:was revolted by),そうして,(英国)工場法が可決された。次の段階は,より重要なものであった。即ち,義務教育の開始である。これは,親権に対する真に重大な干渉である。休日を除いて,毎日の多くの時間,子供は家庭から離れて,子供たちが知る必要があると国が考える事柄を学習しなければならず,また,親がこのことをどう思うかは法的には無関係ない(のである)。学校を通して,子供の生活に対する国家の支配は,次第に広がりつつある。たとえ両親がクリスチャン・サイエンスの信者(注:彼らは手術や輸血を認めない。)であっても,子供の健康は世話をしてもらえる。子供が精神的に欠陥があれば,特殊学校へ行かされる。困窮していれば,養ってもらえる(食料などが与えられる)。親がブーツを買ってやれないなら,支給されるだろう。子供が登校したときに,親から虐待されている形跡があれば,親はおそらく刑罰を受けるだろう。

Chapter XV: The Family and the State, n.1

The family, though it has a biological origin, is in civilized communities a product of legal enactment. Marriage is regulated by law, and the rights of parents over their children are minutely determined. Where there is no marriage, the father has no rights, and the child belongs exclusively to the mother. But although the law means to uphold the family, it has in modern times increasingly intervened between parents and children, and is gradually becoming, against the wish and intention of law-makers, one of the chief engines for the break-up of the family system. This has happened through the fact that bad parents cannot be relied upon to take as much care of their children as the general feeling of the community considers necessary. And not only bad parents, but such as are very poor, require the intervention of the State to secure their children from disaster. In the early nineteenth century, the proposal to interfere with the labour of children in factories was fiercely resisted on the ground that it would weaken parental responsibility. Although the English law did not, like that of ancient Rome, allow parents to kill their children quickly and painlessly, it did permit them to drain their children of life by a slow agony of toil. This sacred right was defended by parents, employers, and economists. Nevertheless, the moral sense of the community was revolted by such abstract pedantry, and the Factory Acts were passed. The next step was a more important one, namely the inauguration of compulsory education. This is a really serious interference with the rights of parents. For a large number of hours on all days except holidays, the children have to be away from home, learning things that the State considers necessary for them to know, and what the parents think about the matter is legally irrelevant. Through the schools, the control of the State over the lives of children is being gradually extended. Their health is cared for, even if their parents are Christian Scientists. If they are mentally deficient, they are sent to special schools. If they are necessitous, they may be fed. Boots may be supplied if the parents 'cannot afford them. If the children arrive at school showing signs of parental ill-treatment, the parents are likely to suffer penal consequences. In old days, parents had a right to the earnings of their children as long as their children were under age; now, although it may be difficult in practice for children to withhold their earnings, they have the right to do so, and this right can be enforced when circumstances arise which make it important. One of the few rights remaining to parents in the wage-earning class is that of having their children taught any brand of superstition that may be shared by a large number of parents in the same neighbourhood. And even this right has been taken away from parents in many countries.
(掲載日:2016.11.12/更新日: )