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バートランド・ラッセル 結婚論 第13章
キリスト教道徳の由来(松下彰良 訳)

Marriage and Morals, 1929, by Bertrand Russell

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 第十三章 今日の家族 n.6

 この段階までは,文明の進歩家族の力を増してきた。しかし,この段階から先は,反対の動きが起こり,(現在では)西欧世界の家族は見る影もなく衰えてしまっている(過去の単なる幻影となってしまっている)。家族の衰退をもたらした原因は,一部分は経済的なものであり,一部分は文化的なものであった。最高度に発達した家族というものは,都市住民にとっても,船乗り(seafaring people)にとっても,決してあまり適したものではなかった。商業は,現代を除く(except ours)あらゆる時代において,文化を生み出す主な要因であった。商業は,人々を自分たちのものとは異なる慣習と接触させ,そうして,部族の偏見から人々を解放したからである。従って,船乗りである古代ギリシア人(注:ギリシア時代のギリシア人)の間には,同時代の他の人々よりも,はるかに家族への隷属が見られない。海の持つ解放的な影響力の例は,他に,べネチア,オランダ,エリザベス朝のイギリスにも見られる。
 しかし,このことは,本題からはずれている(beside the point)。我々に係る唯一の要点は,家族の他の者が家にとどまっている間に、家族の一員が長い航海に出ていった場合には,彼(航海に旅立った者)は必然的に家族の支配(家族によるコントロール)から解放され,家族はそれに比例して弱まった,ということである。田舎の住民の都市への流入は,あらゆる時代の興隆期の文明の特徴であるが,これも家族を弱める点で,海上貿易(marine commerce)と同様な効果があった。

Chapter XIII: Family at present day, n.6

Up to this point, the growth of civilization had increased the strength of the family. From this point onward, however, an opposite movement has taken place, until the family in the Western world has become a mere shadow of what it was. The causes which brought about the decay of the family were partly economic and partly cultural. In its fullest development, it was never very suitable either to urban populations or to seafaring people. Commerce has been in all ages except ours the chief cause of culture, since it has brought men into relations with customs other than their own, and has thus emancipated them from tribal prejudice. Accordingly we find, among seafaring Greeks, much less slavery to the family than among their contemporaries. Other examples of the emancipating influence of the sea are to be found in Venice, in Holland, and in Elizabethan England. This, however, is beside the point. The only point which concerns us is that when one member of a family went on a long voyage while the rest stayed at home, he was inevitably emancipated from family control, and the family was proportionately weakened. The influx of rural populations into the towns, which is characteristic of all periods of rising civilization, had the same kind of effect as marine commerce in weakening the family. Another influence, perhaps even more important where the lower strata of society were concerned, was slavery. The master had little respect for the family relations of his slaves. He could part husbands and wives whenever he felt so disposed, and he could, of course, himself have intercourse with any female slave who pleased him. These influences, it is true, did not weaken the aristocratic family, which was kept coherent by the desire for prestige, and for success in the Montague-and-Capulet brawls which characterized ancient city life as much as the city life of Italy in the latter Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Aristocracy, however, lost its importance during the first century of the Roman Empire, and Christianity, which ultimately conquered, had been at first a religion of slaves and proletarians. The previous weakening of the family in those social classes no doubt accounts for the fact that early Christianity was somewhat hostile to it, and formulated an ethic in which the place of the family was much less than in any previous ethic, except that of Buddhism. In the ethic of Christianity, it is the relation of the soul to God that is important, not the relation of man to his fellow-men.
(掲載日:2016.10.19 /更新日: )