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Portal Site for Russellian in Japan

ラッセル「政治的に重要な欲求 −ノーベル文学賞受賞記念講演
1950年12月11日,ストックホルム」n.6 (松下彰良・訳)

Bertrand Russell: What Desires Politically Important? 1950

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 皆さんは私が悪しき動機しか,あるいはせいぜい倫理的に中立な動機しか,考慮していない( allow 認めていない)と感じられたかもしれません。残念ながら,概して,悪しき動機のほうが愛他的な動機よりも強力ですが,愛他的な動機も存在していることや,時には効果的であることを,私は否定はしません。19世紀初期の英国における奴隷制度に反対する扇動(アジ)は疑いなく愛他的なものであり,徹底的に効果的でした。その愛他主義は,1833年,英国の納税者がジャマイカの土地所有者(地主)に彼らが(所有する)奴隷の解放のための保障とし,何百万ポンドも支払ったという事実,及び,ウィーン会議において,英国政府は,他の国々にも奴隷売買をやめさせようという見地から,重要な譲歩をする決意をしていたという事実,によっても証明されました。これは過去の事例ですが,今日アメリカはひとしく顕著な事例を与えています。けれども,(今ここで)目下の論争に乗り出したいとは思いませんので,これらの問題には立ち入らないようにします。

You may have been feeling that I have allowed only for bad motives, or, at best, such as are ethically neutral. I am afraid they are, as a rule, more powerful than more altruistic motives, but I do not deny that altruistic motives exist, and may, on occasion, be effective. The agitation against slavery in England in the early nineteenth century was indubitably altruistic, and was thoroughly effective. Its altruism was proved by the fact that in 1833 British taxpayers paid many millions in compensation to Jamaican landowners for the liberation of their slaves, and also by the fact that at the Congress of Vienna the British Government was prepared to make important concessions with a view to inducing other nations to abandon the slave trade. This is an instance from the past, but present-day America has afforded instances equally remarkable. I will not, however, go into these, as I do not wish to become embarked in current controversies.
I do not think it can be questioned that sympathy is a genuine motive, and that some people at some times are made somewhat uncomfortable by the sufferings of some other people. It is sympathy that has produced the many humanitarian advances of the last hundred years. We are shocked when we hear stories of the ill-treatment of lunatics, and there are now quite a number of asylums in which they are not ill-treated. Prisoners in Western countries are not supposed to be tortured, and when they are, there is an outcry if the facts are discovered. We do not approve of treating orphans as they are treated in Oliver Twist. Protestant countries disapprove of cruelty to animals. In all these ways sympathy has been politically effective. If the fear of war were removed, its effectiveness would become much greater. Perhaps the best hope for the future of mankind is that ways will be found of increasing the scope and intensity of sympathy.