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Portal Site for Russellian in Japan

(元々社,1956年2月。205p. 民族教養新書/荒地出版社,1956年12月。198p.)

(原著:Religion and Science, 1935)

第10章 結論 (松下訳に変更)
Chap.10: Conclusion


 知的自由への脅威は,1660年以来(注:1660年に英国王政復古)どんな時代より,今日(注:本書は1935年出版)大きなものとなっている。だが,今日では,それはキリスト教会から生じているのではない。それは政府から生じているのであり,現代の無秩序と混乱から生じた危機のために,以前,教会の権威に属していた神聖にして犯すべからざる性格を,政府が受け継いでいるのである。古い形態の衰退を自己満足で喜ぶより,迫害の新しい形態に反抗することこそ,科学者や科学的知識を尊ぶすべての者のあきらかな義務である。そして,この義務は, 迫害が生れる(ような)いかなる特殊な教説を好むことによっても決して軽減されない。共産主義を好むために,ロシアにおいて何が障害であるか認めたがらないということであってならず,また,共産主義のドグマを批判することを許さない体制が,結局,新知識発見の障害になっていることを理解しないようではいけない。また,逆に,共産主義や社会主義に対する嫌悪により,われわれをして,ドイツにおいてそれらを抑圧するため行なわれてきた野蛮行為を容認させる結果になってもいけない。科学者がその望むだけの知的自由をほとんど勝ち得ている国々においては,かれらは,公平な非難により,他国で,自由が抑圧される教説が何であろうとも,知的自由が奪われることを好まないことを示すべきである。


The threat to intellectual freedom is greater in our day than at any time since 1660; but it des not now come from the Christian Churches. It comes from governments, which, owing to the modern danger of anarchy and chaos, have succeeded to the sacrosanct character formerly belonging to the ecclesiastical authorities. It is the clear duty of men of science, and of all who value scientific knowledge, to protest against the new forms of persecution rather than to congratulate themselves complacently upon the decay of the older forms. And this duty is not lessened by any liking for the particular doctrines in support of which persecution occurs. No liking for Communism should make us unwilling to recognize what is amiss in Russia,or to realize that a regime which allows no criticism of its dogma must, in the end, become an obstacle to the discovery of new knowledge. Nor, conversely, should a dislike of Communism or Socialism lead us to condone the barbarities which have been perpetrated in suppressing them in Germany. In the countries in which men of science have won almost as much intellectual freedom as they desire, they should show, by impartial condemnation, that they dislike its curtailment elsewhere whatever may be the doctrines for the sake of which it is suppressed.

Those to whom intellectual freedom is personally important may be a minority in the community, but among them are the men of most importance to the future. We have seen the importance of Copernicus, Galileo, and Darwin in the history of mankind, and it is not to be supposed that the future will produce no more such men. If they are prevented from doing their work and having their due effect, the human race will stagnate, and a new Dark Age will succeed, as the earlier Dark Age succeeded the brilliant period of antiquity. New truth is often uncomfortable, especially to the holders of power ; nevertheless, amid the long record of cruelty and bigotry, it is the most important achievement of our intelligent but wayward Species.