Source: Education and the Social Order, 1932, chap. 14: education and economics


 教育上の欠陥は悪い経済体制の結果だと考える人がいる。どの経済体制の下でもある程度の権力賛美は存在し、完全な教育組織の創造を妨げる、という見方に私は同感である。経済的要因が教育に与える力は 疑いもなく深刻であり、表面的には必ずしも明白ではない。五つの観点から経済的要因の影響が考えられる。


 教育理念として、競争の代りに協力を重視することは 一つの確固たる道徳の進歩として生き残るに違いない。そして、それを、経済機構の完全な変革だけが達成できるのである。

( There are those who hold that whatever is amiss in education, or, for that matter, in anything else, has Its source in a bad economic system I do not myself believe this ; I incline to the view that under any economic system there will be a certain amount of stupidity and a certain amount of love of power, each of which will stand in the way of the creation of a perfect educational system Nevertheless, the influence of economic factors on education is un- doubtedly profound, and not always superficially obvious....
The influence of economic causes upon education may be dealt with under five heads, which we will consider successively.

First: According to the economic circumstances of a State, the amount of money which it can afford to spend on education will vary. ...
Second : One of the purposes of education is to increase total production. ...
Third : The system of distribution has a profound effect upon education, much greater than that of the two factors we have hitherto considered . ...
Fourth : Endowment ... it is inevitable that endowments should, in the main, be a conservative force.
Five : Tradition .. derived from some economic cause which operated in the past but does not operate in the present.

Although, as we have seen, economic causes connected with private property tend to make educa tion conservative, it may be doubted whether it will be any less conservative under communism when once the revolutionary period is past. ...
... the substitution of co-operation for competition as an educational ideal will remain a solid moral advance, which only a complete change in the economic system renders possible. )