* 原著:Authority and the Individual, 1949, chapt.1:Social Cohesion and Human Natuire
* 出典:牧野力(編)『ラッセル思想辞典』所収


 科学は、不幸なことに、人間の破壊本能を満足させる極めて強力な手段を我々人間(人類)に与えたため -人間(人類)が小部族として(地上に)散在していた時代のように- 人間(人類)の本能にそれらの手段を自由に使うことを許すことはもはや(人類の)進化上の目的には役立たない。(そうして)無政府主義的になりやすい人間生得の衝動と(科学技術を)どう調和させるか(make peace with )という問題は、-これまでほとんど扱われてこなかったが- 科学技術が進歩すればするほど、ますます緊急の(imperative 避けられない)問題になってきている。
 人類学者の研究は、人間が異なった文化様式に極めて広く適応する能力をもってきたと実証している。衝動と文化との融和のために基本的衝動を完全に排除しては全く達成できないと思う。この機械文明の世界においてさえ、 現在閉じ込められている衝動に、何か望ましい現実的な吐け口を見出すことが安全のために必要である。文化生活を持続させるために、各人の心に住みついている野蛮人の原始的衝動有効な吐け口の機会を与えなければならない。
( ... But, unfortunately, science has put into our hands such enormously powerful means of satisfying our destructive instincts, that to allow them free play no longer serves any evolutionary purpose, as it did while men were divided into petty tribes. The problems of making peace with our anarchic impulses is one which has been too little studied, but one which becomes more and more imperative as scientific technique advances. From the purely biological point of view it is unfortunate that the destructive side of technique has advanced so very much more rapidly than the creative side. In one moment a man may kill 500,000 people, but he cannot have children any quicker than the days of our savage ancestors. If a man could have 500,000 children as quickly as by an atomic bomb he can destroy 500,000 enemiers, we might, at the cost of enormous suffering, leave the biological problem to the struggle for existence and the survival of the fittest. But in the modern world the old mechanism of evolution can no longer be relied upon.
The problem of the social reformer, therefore, is not merely to seek means of security, for if these means when found provide no deep satisfaction the security will be thrown away for the glory of adventure. The problem is rather to combine that degree of security which is essential to the species, with forms of adventure and danger and contest which are compatible with the civilized way of life. And in attempting to solve this problem we must remember always that, although our manner of life and our institutions and our knowledge have undergone profound changes, our instincts both for good and evil remain very much what they were when our ancestors' brains first grew to their present size. I do not think the reconciliation of primitive impulses with the civilized way of life is impossible, and the studies of anthropologists have shown the very wide adaptability of human nature to different culture patterns. But I do not think it can be achieved by complete exclusion of any basic impulse. A life without adventure is likely to be unsatisfying, but a life in which adventure is allowed to take whatever form it will is sure to be short.
I think perhaps the essence of the matter was I given by the Red Indian whom I quoted a moment ago, who regretted the old life because there was glory in it." Every energetic person wants some thing that can count as "glory." There are those who get it-film stars, famous athletes, military commanders, and even some few politicians, but they are a small minority, and the rest are left to day dreams-day-dreams of the cinema, day-dreams of wild west adventure stories, purely private day dreams of imaginary power. I am not one of those ...