Bertrand Russell : Portal Site for Russellian in Japan


* (語学テキスト)佐山栄太郎(編)『訳注ラッセル選』から採録
* 出典:佐山栄太郎(編)『訳注ラッセル選』(南雲堂,1960年7月刊)pp.108-1093.


The family


The strongest and most instinctively compelling*1 of social groups was, and still is, the family. The family is necessitated*2 among human beings by the great length of infancy*3, and by the fact that the mother of young infants is seriously*4 handicapped*5 in the work of food gathering. It was this circumstance that with human beings*6, as with most species of birds, made the father an essential member of the family group. This must have led to*7 a division of labour*8 in which the men hunted while the women stayed at home. The transition*9 from the family to the small tribe*10 was presumably*11 biologically connected with the fact that hunting could be more efficient if it was co-operative, and from a very early time the cohesion*12 of the tribe must have been increased and developed by conflicts*13 with other tribes. The remains*14 that have been discovered of early men and half-men are now sufficiently numerous to give a fairly clear picture of*15 the stages in evolution, from the most advanced anthropoid apes*16 to the most primitive human beings.
*1 compelling「強制力のある」この後に group を入れて解すればよい。
*2 be necessitated「必要とさせられる」
*3 great length of infancy 「幼児の期間が大へん長いこと」
*4 serious1y「ひどく」
*5 be handicapped 「不利におかれる」,「掣肘(せいちゅう)を受ける」
*6 with human beings の with は in the case of,「~の場合に」
*7 have led to = have resulted in
*8 division of 1abour「分業」
*9 transition「移り変り」
*10 tribe 「種族」「部族」
*11 presumably「推測するに」「多分」
*12 cohesion [kouhi:en]「結合力」「団結の緊密さ」 この動詞は cohereである。
*13 conflict「闘争」
*14 remains「遣物,遺骨」 この意味で複数形が普通。この remains は of early men と続く
*15 clear picture of ~ 「~のはっきりした姿,光景」
*16 anthropoid apes 「類人猿」

It was this circumstance that ... made the father an essential member ... と筋をたどると, it ... tbat の強意構文であることがわかる。a division of 1abour in which ... の which の先行詞は division of labour である。hunting could be more efficient は Subjunctive ではなく,ただの過去。なお,本文には the fact that ... という表現がいくつもあることを注意せよ。