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ラッセル「親と子」

出典:牧野力(編)『ラッセル思想辞典

 Source: On Education, especially in early childhood, 1926, by Bertrand Russell, Part II, Chap. 11.



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(要旨訳です。)
 ・・・。幼年時代に愛情や同情という性質を無理に早く発達させるより、同情心と愛情に溢れた成人に育てる努力をする方がよい。・・・。
 広い愛情を生み出す肉体的・精神的特質を子供に与えればよい。両親の子供への愛情は性愛とは異なる。性愛の本質は応答を求め、応答なしには性愛の生物学的機能は果せない。だが、両親の子への愛情の本質は応答を求めない。
(For these reasons we should be more concerned to produce sympathetic and affectionate adults than to force a precocious development of these qualities in early years. ... Parental affection, at its best, differs from sex love in this respect. It is of the essence of sex love to seek a response, as is natural, since, without a response, it cannot fulfil its biological function. But it is not of the essence of parental love to seek a response. ... )
 自然で理屈抜きの両親の本能は、動物の場合と異なり、子供に愛を感ずるのである。母親は子どもから感謝を求めたりしない。
 老年が近づくと、子供に援助を求めるというのは世界中どこにもあった。しかし、この孝行も私有財産がふえ秩序ある政治が広まると、次第に重要ではなくなる。
( The natural unsophisticated parental instinct feels towards the child as towards an externalized part of the parent's body. If your great toe is out of order you attend to it from self-interest, and you do not expect it to feel grateful. The savage woman, I imagine, has a very similar feeling towards her child. She desires its welfare in just the same way as she desires her own, especially while it is still very young. ...
With the growth of foresight there is an increasing tendency to exploit children's affections for the sake of their help when old age comes. Hence the principle of filial piety, which has existed throughout the world and is embodied in the Fifth Commandment. With the development of private property and ordered government, filial piety becomes less important. ...
This, of course, applies chiefly to the propertied classes ; among wage-earners the older relationship persists. But even there it is being gradually displaced as a result of old-age pensions and similar measures. )