Source: Authority and the Individual, 1949, chapt.6:Individual and Social Ethics



 おおざっぱに言って、社会活動の目的には重要なものが二つある。一方で、安心・安全の確保(セキュリティ)及び公正/正義の確保という目的のためには中央集権的政府の統制が必要であり、 十分な効果を発揮しようとすれば、(社会の構成範囲を)世界政府の創設にまで拡大しなければならない。他方、進歩という活動目的のためには、(中央集権とは)逆に、社会秩序と両立可能な個人的創意工夫や発議権を最大限に発揮させる必要がある。これらの2つの目的を可能な限り確保する方法は、権限委譲である。
(... Broadly speaking, we have distinguished two main purposes of social activities: on the one hand, security and justice require centralized governmental control, which must extend to the creation of a world government, if it is to be effective. Progress, on the contrary requires the utmost scope for personal initiative that is compatible with social order.
The method of securing as much as possible of both these aims in devolution. The world government must leave national governments free in everything not involved in the prevention of war ; national governments, in their turn, must leave as much scope as possible to local authorities. In industry, it must not be thought that all problems are solved when there is nationalization. A large industry -- eg., railways -- should have a large measure of self-government; the relation of employees to the State in a nationalized industry should not be a mere reproduction of their former relation to private employers. ...
In cultural matters, diversity is a condition of progress. Bodies that have a certain independence of the State, such as universities and learned societies, have great value in this respect. It is deplorable to see, as in present-day Russia, men of science compelled to subscribe to obscurantist nonsense at the behest of scientifically ignorant politicians who are able and willing to enforce their ridiculous decisions by the use of economic and police power.)