* Source: Religion and Science, chapt. 9: Science and Ethics.



 「倫理学」とは、万人の欲望がその人自身の主観に左右されて衝突するので、この欲望のもつ主親性から万人を脱却させようとする試みである、・・・ また、政治と密接な関係をもつ万人の欲望に一定の基準の下で、非個人的で、普遍的な意義を与えようとする試みである。個人的な利益が社会の利益と調和すれば、社会の目的にも役だつ。できるだけの調和を創造することが教育と賢明な学校の使命である。

 実際に、万人が現在以上に人類の普遍的幸福に一致する欲望で行動できるようになるには、倫理的な理論によるのではなく、むしろ知性が恐怖から解放されて、大きな豊かな普遍的欲望へと開拓されることが必要である。「善」 の定義がどうであろうと、普遍的欲望に向かって、万人が協力することが望ましいのである。

( Science has nothing to say about "values." ... Questions as to "values" - that is to say, as to what is good or bad on its own account, independently of its effects - lie outside the domain of science, as the defenders of religion emphatically assert. I think that in this they are right, but I draw the further conclusion, which they do not draw, that questions as to "values" lie wholly outside the domain of knowledge. That is to say, when we assert that this or that has "value," we are giving expression to our own emotions, not to a fact which would still be true if our personal feelings were different. To make this clear, we must try to analyse the conception of the Good.)

It is obvious, to begin with, that the whole idea of good and bad has some connection with desire. Prima facie, anything that we all desire is "good," and anything that we all dread is "bad." If we all agreed in our desires, the matter could be left there, but unfortunately our desires conflict. ...

Ethics is an attempt - though not, I think, a successful one - to escape from this subjectivity. ...

Ethics is thus closely related to politics : it is an attempt to bring the collective desires of a group to bear upon individuals ; or, conversely, it is an attempt by an individual to cause his desires to become those of his group. This latter is, of course, only possible if his desires are not too obviously opposed to the general interest:...

It is, in fact, not by ethical theory, but by the cultivation of large and generous desires through intelligence, happiness, and freedom from fear, that men can be brought to act more than they do at present in a manner that is consistent with the general happiness of mankind. Whatever our definition of the "Good," and whether we believe it to be subjective or objective, those who do not desire the happiness of mankind will not endeavour to further it, while those who do desire it will do what they can to bring it about.