出典: Education and the Social Order, 1932, chap. 12: Competition in Education


 我々の社会機構は、ますます訓練された、見聞の広い知性(well-informed intelligence)を必要としている。・・・科学の進歩から、次代の人々は25歳までに、現在最高度に達している知識人の段階に達することが必要となる。
( Our social structure increasingly depends upon trained and well-informed intelligence. ... The advancement of science -- to take another illustration -- cannot continue at anything like its present rate unless a man can reach the frontiers of existing knowledge by the time he is twenty-five, since few men are capable of profound originality after the age of thirty.)
( There must be sufficient instruction, and there must not be the evils of over-education. This demands three things.
First and foremost, there must be as little emotional strain as possible in connection with the acquisition of knowledge; ...
The second thing required is a drastic elimination of instruction that serves no useful purpose ... they (children) should not learn things merely because they always have been learnt. ...
The third thing required is that all higher instruction should be given with a view to teaching the spirit and technique of inquiry rather than from the standpoint of imparting the right answer to questions. ...)
(And the pupil's research should not be judged by the orthodoxy or the conclusion arrived at, but by the extent of knowledge and the reasonableness of the argument. ...)
 ・・・。今、世界が必要としているのは'組織(化)'と'協力'であり、'競争'ではない。(注:牧野氏も "organization"を「組織」と訳しているが、「組織化」としないと意味を取り違え易い!/特定の組織が必要と言っているのではなく、バラバラになっているものを有機的に組織化していくことが必要だということ) 競争の効用を信ずる一切の信念は'時代錯誤'である。・・・経済的にだけではなく、倫理的にも、青年を競争的に教育するのは望ましくない。過剰教育はこの望ましくない傾向から生れたものである。
( What the world now needs is not competition but organization and co-operation; all belief in the utility of competition has become an anachronism. And even if competition were useful, it is not in itself admirable, since the emotions with which it is connected are the emotions of hostility and ruthlessness. ... Ethically, therefore, no less than economically, it is undesirable to teach the young to be competitive.)